BIO 150: Exam 1

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Biodiversity

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Biology

111 Terms

1

Biodiversity

range of variation found among microorganisms, plants, fungi, and animals

  • Richness of species of living organisms

  • three levels: genetic, species, ecosystem

  • variety of life in the world, or in a particular habitat or ecosystem

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ecosystem diversity

measure of the variety of biotic components in a region along with abiotic components

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Genetic diversity

total genetic information contained within all individuals of a species, population, or community

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species diversity

diversity of species present in a community

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community

populations of organisms of different species that interact with one another

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Ecosystem

any geographic area with all of the living organisms present and the nonliving parts of their physical environment

  • Involves the movement and storage of energy and matter through living things and activities

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gene

unit of inherited material

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organism

individual living thing

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population

group of individuals belonging to one species living in an area

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species

group of populations of similar organisms that reproduce among themselves, but do not naturally reproduce with any other kinds of organisms

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Ecologists

conduct research to better understand biodiversity, quantify its loss, and develop strategies for conserving and using it

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Ecosystem services

all direct and indirect benefits that humans derive from organisms and ecosystem

  • provisioning

  • regulating

  • cultural

  • supporting

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provisioning services

provide raw materials

Ex. food, fuel, fiber and other materials, medicines, genetic resources

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regulating services

part of Earth’s life-support system

Ex. climate moderation, soil formation, erosion control, O2 and CO2 regulation, water capture, water purification, air cleaning, flood control, storm mitigation, waste decomposition, bioremediation

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cultural services

enrich quality of life

Ex. aesthetics, recreation, education, spiritual value, human mental and physical health

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supporting services

enable all the other ecosystem services

Ex. primary productivity, nutrient cycling, pollination, biological control

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existence value

economic value of a system and our willingness to mitigate biodiversity loss

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threats to biodiversity

  • Habitat loss/alteration

  • Invasive species

  • Pollution

  • Population (human): human population is growing exponentially at the same time there is a exponential decline in other animal populations

  • Overharvesting

  • Climate change

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Natural selection

results in allele frequencies changing from generation to generation according to the allele’s impact on the survival and reproduction of individuals

  • Brings about adaptations

  • Increases the frequency of advantageous mutations and decreases the frequency of deleterious (harmful) mutations

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positive selection

increases the frequency of an advantageous allele

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negative selection

decreases the frequency of a deleterious allele

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balancing selection

acts to maintain two or more allele in a population

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heterozygote advantage

when the heterozygote’s fitness is higher than that of either homozygotes, resulting in selection that ensures both alleles remain in the population at intermediate frequencies

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stabilizing selection

intermediate phenotypes have a higher fitness than the extreme varieties, normal bell-shaped curve

  • Ex. from normal curve → normal curve (potentially increase in intermediate values

  • Ex. birth weight and child mortality

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directional selection

individuals with one of the extreme phenotypes has a higher fitness than intermediate varieties

  • Ex. from normal curve → skewed distribution

  • Ex. peppered moths, from white spotted to black due to industrial revolution

  • sexual selection

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disruptive (divergent) selection

both extreme phenotypes are favored at the expense of intermediate varieties, can facilitate speciation

  • Ex. from normal curve → bimodal shaped curve

  • Ex. stickleback fish, both large fish and small fish favored

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sexual selection

promotes traits that increase an individual’s access to reproductive opportunities

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intrasexual selection

focuses on interactions between individuals of one sex, as when members of one sex compete with one another for access to the other sex

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intersexual selection

focuses on interactions between males and females, as when females choose from males

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allele

alternate versions of genes

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viruses

  • Very, very small (<200 nm), microbe

  • Not a cell - genetic material (RNA or DNA) contained in a protein coat

  • Cannot reproduce independently

  • Do not contain ribosomes or generate ATP

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bacteria

  • Small, but bigger (200-1000 nm), microbe

  • Single cell - DNA and other contents enclosed by cell membrane and wall

  • Reproduce independently

  • Contain ribosomes and generate ATP

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beta-lactams

kill bacteria surrounded by a cell wall (by blocking how molecules in the cell-wall are linked together)

  • Penicillin and cephalosporin

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macrolides

affect bacterial ribosomes and prevent protein synthesis

  • erythromycin

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quinolines

breakdown bacterial DNA and prevent repair

  • ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin

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antibiotic resistance

general means by which bacteria resist antibiotics

  • intrinsic resistance

  • acquired resistance

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intrinsic resistance

resistance naturally coded and expressed by a bacterial species to a particular antibiotic, certain types of antibiotics work on certain types of antibiotics

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gram staining

Gram positive bacteria- looks purple (adhering more of the dye), thick cell wall

Gram negative bacteria- looks pink, thin cell wall, antibiotic will not work for this bacteria

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acquired resistance

genetic changes that lead to bacteria becoming resistant to an antibiotic

  • Germs develop new cell processes that avoid using the antibiotic’s target

  • Germs change or destroy the antibiotics with enzymes, proteins that break down the drug

  • Germs restrict access by changing the entryways or limiting the number of entryways

  • Germs change the antibiotic’s target so the drug can no longer fit and do its job

  • Germs get rid of antibiotic using pumps

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evolution

change in the genetic composition (inherited traits) of a population from one generation to the next (modification)

  • Theory that all organisms on Earth are related by common ancestry and that they have changed over time (common descent)

  • when living organisms reproduce, they pass on to their progeny a collection of traits

  • pattern v. process

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pattern

observed evolutionary change

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process

mechanisms that produce observed patterns change

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microevolution

small changes in the gene pool of a population over successive generations

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gene pool

all the genes in a population at a given time

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mechanisms leading to evolutionary change

*all impacted by genetic variation

  • selection

  • genetic drift

    • gene flow

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selection

differential success in reproduction of organisms carrying variations of a trait (non-random)

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artificial selection

form of directional selection where given traits are selected for by humans

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genetic variation

differences among individuals in their composition of genes and other DNA sequences due to mutation and gene transfer / sexual reproduction

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adaptation

inherited trait that enhances the fitness of an individual in a given environment

Types: structural, physiological, and behavioral

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biological fitness

relative survival and reproduction of one variant compared to others in the same population, contribute the most to the gene pool

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biological benefits

  • system stability

  • ecosystem productivity

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system stability

diverse systems are more

  • resilient (speed of recovery after disturbances)

    • resistant (ability to absorb disturbances while retaining function)

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ecosystem productivity

diverse systems have higher net primary productivity

Ex. more chemical energy, form of potential energy, in a system

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plato

typological thinking

  • organisms were created in a perfect way, unchanging, and not related

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aristotle

typological thinking and scale of nature

  • lower and higher organisms

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lamarck

change through time and scale of nature

  • organisms will gradually change through time depending on their environment `

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darwin and wallace

change through time and common ancestry

  • organisms are related

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Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

curiosity in studying the natural world

  • voyage of the HMS Beagle (1831-1836): traveled to Galapagos islands with different ocean currents resulting in different landscapes / environments

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darwin observations

  • different species are often similar, with slight variations in theme

  • Could figure out which island you were on based on the tortoises there, the tortoises were similar to the ones found in south africa

  • Marine iguanas only exist in the Galapagos islands

  • Even though he saw the patterns, he didn’t see the process of how change came about

  • Used pigeons to see how breeding different types resulted in variations

    • Selection leads to biological change

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acclimation

short term response to an environmental change

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phenotypic plasticity

ability of individuals to alter its physiology, morphology, and/or behavior in response to a change in the environmental conditions

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natural selection limitations

  1. Selection is limited by historical and genetic constraints

  2. No organisms is “perfectly” adapted

    1. Favored traits are dependent on the environmental and temporal context

  3. Adaptations are compromises

  4. Not all traits are adaptive (i.e. just a by-product, result of history, an outdated adaptation)

  5. Natural selection (evolution) does not have a goal

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trait

characteristic of an individual

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blending inheritance

traits in the offspring resemble the average of those in the parents

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X-linked genes

genes in the X chromosome

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crisscross inheritance

pattern in which an X chromosome present in a male in one generation is transmitted to a female in the next generation, and in the generation after it can be transmitted back to a male

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wild type

most common allele, genotype, or phenotype present in a population; non mutant

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nondisjunction

failure of a pair of chromosomes to separate normally during anaphase of cell division

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hemophilia

trait characterized by excessive bleeding that results from a recessive mutation in a gene encoding a protein necessary for blood clotting

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linked

describes genes that are sufficiently close together in the same chromosome that they do not assort independently

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non recombinant

descendant in which the alleles are present in the same combination as that present in a parent

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recombinant

offspring with a different combination of alleles from that of either parent, resulting from one or more crossovers in prophase I of meiosis

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genetic map

diagram showing the relative positions of genes along a chromosome

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map unit

one unit of distance, distance between genes resulting in 1% recombination

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somatic mutations

mutation that occurs in somatic cells

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germ-line mutations

mutation that occurs in eggs, sperm, or the cells that give rise to these reproductive cells and therefore is passed onto the next generation

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neutral mutations

genetic changes that have no effect or negligible effects on the organism, or whose effects are not associated with differences in survival or reproduction

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deleterious mutations

genetic changes that are harmful to an organism

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advantageous mutations

genetic changes that improve their carriers’ chances of survival or reproduction

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allele frequencies

proportion of a specified allele among all the alleles of a gene in a population

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fixed population

in genetics, describes the situation in which all individuals in a population are homozygous for the same allele of a particular gene

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genotype frequency

proportion of a specified genotype among all the genotypes for a particular gene or set of genes in a population

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genetic drift

change in allele frequency due to chance, large effect in small populations

  • increases genetic variation

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population bottleneck

an extreme, usually temporary, reduction in population size that may result in marked loss of genetic diversity and, in the process, genetic drift

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founder event

type of genetic drift that occurs when only a few individuals establish a new population

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migration

movement of organisms from one place to another, including the movement of individuals from one population to another

  • Can result in gene flow

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gene flow

movement of alleles from one population to another through interbreeding between members of each population

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molecular evolution

evolution at the level of DNA, which in time results in the genetic divergence of populations

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molecular clock

rate of consistency in molecular evolution, extent of genetic divergence at a gene in two taxa is thus a reflection of the time since the taxa last shared a common ancestor

  • Fast molecular clock is associated with a pseudogene

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pseudogene

gene that is no longer functional

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sources of genetic variation

  • altering gene number or position

  • formation of new alleles (mutation)

  • gene transfer / sexual reproduction (most common)

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increasing genetic variation through sexual reproduction

  • mixing of genetic information from two games

  • independent assortment

  • random fertilization

  • crossing over in meiosis

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human trait activity

based on the premise of discrete autosomal single gene traits and differences within the population

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discrete traits

you either possess the trait or you do not

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autosomal traits

not on a sex chromosome

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discrete autosomal traits

yes or no trait found on a chromosome that is not the sex chromosome

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trait limitations

  • Traits are not the product of a single gene

  • There can be more than two possible variations of a gene

  • Genes are not the sole determinants of traits

  • Different groups do not have different traits (genes), by race or familial history

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single gene pattern

single gene is associated with a  given outcome

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autosomal with a dominant allele (Mendelian)

discrete traits shown through crosses to appear in the ratios that are consistent with single gene inheritance

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incomplete dominance

heterozygous condition produces an intermediate trait, mixing of two parental phenotypes

  • White sheep and black sheep mate producing gray offspring

  • Orange bird hatchlings whose parents are red and yellow

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