ANS 150 Exams 1-4

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What is the most important nutritional criterion for classifying countries as being underdeveloped, developing or developed?

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Biology

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1

What is the most important nutritional criterion for classifying countries as being underdeveloped, developing or developed?

Whether the average daily consumption of calories and protein is greater than the minimum levels established by the WHO: 2350 calories and 50 g protein.

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2

What is the criteria for caloric intake per day?

2350 calories per day

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3

What is the criteria for protein intake per day?

50 grams

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4

What is the main difference in how an animal learns something by trial and error versus conditioning?

With trial and error the animal initiates the process while with conditioning a human (or third party) initiates the process

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5

What do the stomach, proventriculus and abomasum all have in common?

Chemical and enzymatic digestion

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6

On a world-wide basis, list three trends that were observed during the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of food consumption and availability.

  1. Amount of undernourished people increased erasing 15 years of progress

  2. The incidence of severe food insecurity increased

  3. The incidence of moderate food insecurity increased

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7

What is the advantage of using vocalizations as a measure of an animal's intelligence?

Vocalizations are innate (aren't affected by interactions with humans)

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8

What is the disadvantage of using vocalizations as a measure of an animal's intelligence?

The interpretation of vocalizations is always influenced by human bias Vocalizations may differ based on whether an animal may need to communicate (solitary v. social animals)

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9

What would happen to a cow grazing on pasture (eating grass) whose rumen lost all of its microbes?

The rumen would not be able to digest the grass enzymatically. However, the cecum would assume the role of enzymatic digestion of forages.

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10

What are examples of animals being used in homeopathy?

Animals have been used in the rehabilitation of individuals with psychological disorders, mental illness, and physical disorders

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11

What are examples of animals being used in research?

Animals have been used to develop treatments for diabetes, breast cancer and in development of techniques such as in vitro fertilization and ultrasonography

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12

If two goats are eating orchardgrass hay and one is growing and the other isn’t, then which digestive organ is likely to be functioning differently between the two animals?

The Rumen

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13

What is the correct “animal science” definition for digestion?

Reduction to particle size so that it can enter the body via absorption

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14

In terms of countries that raise animals for food and fiber, what is the main thing that economists look at to determine whether they are likely to make money doing this in the future?

Whether their agricultural production exceeds what their population consumes. If it does, then they can export the excess food for money (profit).

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15

What are the three stages in learning?

Acquisition (reinforcement), Extinction, (Spontaneous) Recovery

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16

List 3 things related to the nutrient intake of the “average person” in a country when its socioeconomic status goes from being underdeveloped to being developed.

Total caloric intake increases; total protein intake increases; the proportion of nutrients from animal sources increases.

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17

What is the biggest challenge in studying animal behavior?

Human bias (anthropomorphism)

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18

What is the main reason why chemical and mechanical digestion usually occur before enzymatic digestion in the digestive tract of animals?

To increase the chyme's surface area upon which enzymes work

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19

In the U.S. which industry has the largest total economic impact and why?

Livestock industry since the gross income is so much higher than that associated with companion animals

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20

In the US which industry has the higher economic impact factor?

Companion animals

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21

What are the similarities between the omasum and the stomach?

Both involved with mechanical digestion

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22

What are the differences between the omasum and the stomach?

The stomach also involves chemical and enzymatic digestion while the omasum is not; The stomach connects to the small intestine while the omasum connects to abomasum

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23

What are the 4 compartments of the ruminants stomach?

Reticulum, rumen, omasum, and abomasum

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24

Which ruminant compartment most closely resembles the stomach of a monogastric?

Abomasum

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25

What is a retrospective study?

a study where the variable (response) of interest occurs before the population is assigned to groups or treatments.

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26

What is a prospective study?

A study where the population is assigned to groups or treatments first and then the variable of interest (response) is measured.

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27

On a world-wide basis what do most people eat to meet their protein needs?

Cereals

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28

If a horse ate a mixture of alfalfa hay and oats, then list all the places where enzymatic digestion would occur.

Stomach and intestines for oats and cecum for hay

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29

What is proteonomics?

The study of a gene's function based on the proteins it produces or proteins that are produced by a specific genome (set of genes)

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30

What does it mean when an embryo becomes unipotent and when does this occur?

Individual cells can only develop/differentiate into one type of tissue and occurs sometime between the 8-cell and blastocyst stage

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31

If a female had corpora albicantia and small follicles on her ovaries and LH and FSH were low, then what stage(s) of her reproductive cycle is she likely to be in?

During the estrous cycle right after prostaglandins have been released and regressed the CL and during lactation

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32

What is the correct definition for heritability?

Variation in phenotype due to the variation in genotypes

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33

Why would a purebred animal breeder want to practice inbreeding?

To increase the frequency of advantageous or desirable genes

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34

What are two functions of the secondary sex glands in males?

Produce the liquid portion of semen that helps push sperm out of the urethra during ejaculation and provide nutrients/buffers for sperm during ejaculation and transportation within the female reproductive tract.

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35

List two different ways that animals with the same genotype and raised in the same environment could have different phenotypes.

Epigenetics and differences in protein production (translation possibly due to microRNAs, etc.)

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36

What is thought to be the last organ to mature during puberty in both males and females?

The brain, specifically the pituitary gland

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37

The secretion of which hormone is the limiting step in whether or not males and females undergo puberty?

LH

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38

What is the definition of Complete Dominance?

One loci, two forms of gene; The phenotype of homozygous dominant is the same as heterozygous

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39

What is the definition of Partial Dominance?

One loci, two forms of gene; Phenotype of heterozygote is similar to homozygous dominant but not as severe

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40

What is the definition of Overdominance?

One loci, two forms of genes; Phenotype of heterozygote exceeds that of homozygous dominant

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41

What is genomics?

genetic composition of animals

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42

What is Epigenetics?

Heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve changes in DNA

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43

What is the definition of Epistasis?

Interaction among genes at different loci; Two loci each with two forms of genes

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44

What is the main difference between patterns of growth for fetal size and fetal weight during gestation?

Size tends to increase linearly at a steady rate throughout all of gestation, whereas weight increases very slowly for the first 2/3 of gestation but then accelerates significantly during the last 1/3

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45

There are two neural reflex arcs active during the entire reproductive cycle in females. What does each one of them do?

Both occur during lactation. One is associated with milk production and ejection (oxytocin and prolactin release) and the other prevents the release of gonadotropins so females don’t exhibit estrus while young animals are nursing (Exception for horses).

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46

If someone accidentally gave LH to a pregnant cow what would happen?

There would be an increase in progesterone from the CL which should assist with or promote pregnancy. There really wouldn’t be any follicular growth since LH works on large follicles and all the follicles would be small during pregnancy.

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47

Why in most genetic improvement programs is more emphasis placed on using superior males than superior females?

For livestock species, one male usually breeds many females since they produce sperm continuously. This allows there to be fewer males so greater selection pressure can be placed on males than females.

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48

Outline (list) the steps that are involved with how genetic information affects or controls the phenotype of animals.

DNA is transcribed into mRNA; mRNA is translated into proteins; and proteins create the genetic contribution to the phenotype.

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49

If a male animal had one-half of the normal sperm in his semen, then list all the organs that might be affected and could cause this situation?

Testicle, epididymis, and vas deferens

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50

List two reasons why pregnant females need to be managed carefully during late gestation?

Increased stress levels can lead to increased cortisol levels, resulting in premature birth. Late gestation is also the most rapid period of fetal growth and development so if she isn’t fed properly then the young animal might be born underdeveloped which wouldn’t be good for its survival.

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51

What is the main difference between the pattern of sperm production in adult males and the pattern of ova production in adult females?

Males produce sperm continuously throughout their entire productive life. Females are born with all the ova that they will ever have and deplete or lose them with each ovulation as an adult.

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52

What is the correct definition of puberty in females (be specific)?

Females have to display estrus, ovulate, be able to maintain pregnancy and deliver a live animal

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53

What happens to most follicles that start to grow in females?

They die or become atretic

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54

What does oxytocin do in females?

Stimulates milk ejection during lactation and stimulates powerful uterine contractions during parturition

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55
  1. A male produces normal amounts of sperm in his semen, but can’t seem to impregnate females. List the male reproductive organs that could be involved. Assume the females are fertile.

It could either be the epididymis if the sperm were immature or it could be the secondary sex glands because they contain compounds that nourish and protect the sperm once they enter the female reproductive tract.

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56

What are disadvantages of inbreeding?

Inbreeding depression Deleterious alleles become homozygous Fewer, less viable offspring Lower survivorship Increased chance of extinction

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57

List the two distinct processes that occur over time for all animals undergoing domestication.

Cultural and biological

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58

What is the biological domestication process?

resembles a form of genetic selection in that the parent animal becomes isolated from the wild population (results in "genetic drift")

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59

What is the cultural domestication process?

Involves changes in how the anima becomes included in the social structure of human societies

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60

What are the main factors that affect when cattle reach puberty?

Cattle reach puberty when they obtain a minimum age and weight; breed (genetics) influences what these minimum levels are.

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61

Even if there are no complications why do cattle farmers worry about calves being delivered backwards?

The umbilical cord is shorter than the calf so if it breaks while the calf’s head is still in the uterus with a backwards presentation then the calf can suffocate even it is coming out without any problems.

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62

In terms of domestication theory, who is the HOST and who is the GUEST?

The host is always the dominant partner (human) and the guest is always the subordinate partner (animal).

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63

Domestication is a form of symbiosis. Which partner derives the most benefit?

The dominant partner or host

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64

What is Symbiosis?

All conditions of permanent living-together of two different species

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65

Why is it common for producers to allow heifers and gilts to exhibit several estrous cycles after puberty before they are bred?

This allows the farmers to make sure that heifers will show normal patterns of both hormonal changes and behaviors prior to being bred. Also helps improve reproductive performance for when they are first bred.

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66

What happens if dairy cows don’t have enough roughage in their diets?

Milk fat decreases and they will suffer from metabolic problems

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67

Why do dairy cattle have to be fed supplemental grain?

The metabolic demands for milk production are so great that they can’t achieve high production levels just by consuming forages.

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68

How does the teat cup of the milk claw get milk out of the udder?

The rubber lining compresses against the teat rhythmically to remove it mechanically based on changes in pressure.

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69

Why do dairy farms have their cows divided into several different lactation groups?

To make sure that they have a relatively constant supply of milk year round/to always have some cows in peak lactation

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70

It is believed that cattle were domesticated in distinct and separate geographic locations. What is the main reason responsible for this?

Cattle were domesticated after people started living in villages or towns rather than being nomadic

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71

List two factors that have caused numbers of dairy farms in N.C. to decrease over the past 30 years.

The government buy-out in the late 1990s and “urban sprawl”

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72

What is the most important thing for dairy farmers to check in their milking parlors? Why?

Pressure in the milking system to prevent overmilking (or physical damage to cow’s teats).

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73

What is the main difference between breeding practices of beef and dairy cattle?

Beef using natural mating and Dairy uses A.I.

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74

What does D.H.I.A. stand for and why is it particularly important for N.C.S.U.?

Dairy Herd Improvement Association. NCSU’s provides services for the most dairy cows (farms) in the world.

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75
  1. What is the main reason that artificial insemination is not used in the beef cattle industry?

The amount of additional labor required is too high.

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76

Relative to a perfect symbiotic relationship, how do most scientists describe domestication of animals by humans?

It is Host-initiated and it is far away from perfect symbiosis which means humans derive much more benefit from it than the domesticated animals.

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77

Why is nutritional management during lactation more important for both beef and dairy cows compared with other livestock species?

Lactation has a very high metabolic demand for nutrients and cattle have to return to estrus, conceive and begin their next pregnancy while they are lactating.

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78

List the four things done for beef calves to be certified as being “pre-conditioned” when they are sold.

Weaned 45 days prior to being sold Undergo a basic health assessment (veterinary examination) Vaccinations Taught to eat from a “feed bunk” or “trough”

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79

What is the best way to determine the emotional state of horses?

Position of their ears

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80

Briefly describe the two main theories as to how horses got to the Americas.

Horses were definitely brought to the Americas by the European and Asian Explorers. There is also evidence that some were here before the explorers arrived. It is thought that their ancient ancestors crossed over from Europe/Asia via the Siberian Ice Bridge and moved south into the Americas.

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81

Why do shepherds begin “creep feeding” lambs within two weeks after birth if they want it to be effective?

The lambs have to learn to leave the flock and enter the creep feeder before their flocking instinct or gregariousness is fully developed.

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82

Why do short day lengths stimulate estrous activity in ewes?

Melatonin increases when it is dark and melatonin has a positive or stimulatory effect on FSH and LH

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83

List two strategies that are commonly used to breed horses.

the two strategies are to breed the mare every other day of estrus beginning on the second day that they are observed in estrus or to use ultrasonography: scan them daily and breed them when the largest follicle reaches 10 mm or greater.

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84

List two uses for progestogens (synthetic progesterone) in the reproductive management of horses.

Prevention of unpredictable and undesirable behaviors during the transition periods and enhance conception/pregnancy rates in mares with low progesterone during the first 3 months of pregnancy.

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85

Why is it necessary for swine producers in the U.S. to castrate their male animals that are destined to be sold for pork when swine producers in other countries don’t have to do this?

In the U.S. pigs reach their average market weight after males have reached puberty so they are castrated to make the pork taste better. In Europe, pigs reach their average market weight before males reach puberty so there is no need for castration since testosterone levels haven’t reached high enough levels to affect the taste of the pork.

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86

What determines when female swine reach puberty?

Swine reach puberty based on a minimum age (about 6 months) and there really isn’t much difference between different breeds

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87

Even if there are no complications why don’t pig farmers worry when piglets are born backwards (posterior presentation)?

The umbilical cord is longer than the piglet so it remains attached and doesn’t separate until the piglet is born so there is not much risk of having the pigs suffocate during delivery.

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88

What are two behaviors that mare’s exhibit when they are “teased”?

Breaking and Winking

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89

What is breaking?

The assumption of a characteristic breeding posture or stance

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90

What is winking?

Contractions that result in the vulva opening and closing in a rhythmic pattern

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91

What are the two most important management practices for nursery pigs?

Transition from milk to a solid diet (corn/soybean meal) and biosecurity

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92

What the main things that affect when sheep reach puberty?

Season and breed/age (genetics).

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93

List three different reasons why it is difficult to determine when mares are going to foal.

  1. Long estrus period with variable ovulation so it is difficult to estimate when pregnancy begins.

  2. Long and variable gestation length so it is difficult to estimate when pregnancy should end.

  3. Most of the behavioral / physiological indicators that parturition is near in mares are very subtle.

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94

When would a slime graft be used instead of a wet graft?

When the ewe that is currently giving birth is the one on which you want to graft the orphan.

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95

List the three main challenges that sheep producers have to deal with.

Foot rot, parasites, predators

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96

What are two things managers can check on live piglets that let them know the sow is having trouble farrowing?

Presence of meconium staining and umbilical hematomas

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97

What is a good goal for sheep producers in terms of when their lambs should be sold?

90 to 120 lb lamb at 90 to 120 days of age

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98

List three differences between American/European and Chinese breeds of pigs.

Chinese pigs have larger litters; grow slowly; are smaller in size; have more adipose tissue; are better mothers; less adaptable; and do not establish peck orders compared with American/European pigs.

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99

Why have numbers of goats in N.C. increased to a greater extent than the number of sheep?

Meat goat producers convinced the N.C. General Assembly to allocate funds to help increase goat production

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100

What is intrauterine migration in horses and why is it important?

It is when equine embryos move around the uterus before they implant. It is critical for the establishment of pregnancy.

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