AP Psych Unit 5 Full

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Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

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125 Terms

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Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

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information processing model

encoding, storage, retrieval - like a computer

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Connectionism model

  • memories are products of interconnected neural networks

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levels of processing

deeper processing = more important, shallow = short term & unimportant

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sensory memory

limited by time, infinite storage in the moment

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Working memory

short term - limited by number (7 = George A. Miller)

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George A. Miller

made famous the phrase: "the magical number 7, plus or minus 2" when describing human memory

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Imagery memory

encode memory both semantically and visually -mnemonic devices

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self-reference effect

Semantic memory ↑ = relatability ↑

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rosy retrospection

The tendency to rate past events more positively than they had actually rated them when the event occurred.

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Chunking

Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory.

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Hierarchies

chunking complexity ↑

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parallel processing

Automatic & implicit (time/setting/muscle memory) VS Episodic & semantic (facts) tracks

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primacy effect

better recall for items at the beginning of a list, longer term than recency

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recency effect

tendency to remember words at the end of a list especially well - still in working memory - short term

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effortful processing

requires attention and conscious effort - in the frontal lobe & hippocampus

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implicit memory

unconscious memory - cerebellum & Basal Ganglia

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memory trace

mental path by which some thought becomes active - experience strengthens pathways & does not edit neurons

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long-term potentiation (LTP)

an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory. - Glutamate & CRED & sleep increase

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Amnesia

loss of explicit memory - can learn implicitly

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Left hippocampus damage

disrupted verbal memory

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right hippocampus damage

disrupted visual memory and locations

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infantile amnesia

Cerebellum alone records memory - implicit experiences

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basal ganglia

structures in the forebrain that help to control movement

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Recall vs. Recognition

fill in the blank tests vs. multiple-choice tests

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Priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response

  • mood, state, & context

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Daniel Schacter

7 sins of memory

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absent-mindedness, transience, blocking

3 sins of forgetting: (1) encoding failure (2) storage decay over time (3) can't access stored info (tongue tip)

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Misattribution, suggestibility, and Bias

3 sins of distortion: (1) source mismatch (2) misinformation effects memory (3) memories influenced by belief

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Persistance

the intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget

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Herman Ebbinghaus

serial position effect (primancy & recency) & the forgetting curve

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proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

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retroactive interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

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imagination inflation

memory & imagination areas are provoked at the same time - creating false memories

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source amnesia

lack of source context, just the event - (not misattribution & source mismatch)

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True memory vs imagination

more detail & less of gist

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positive transfer

when old information facilitates the learning of new information

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Elizabeth Loftus

misinformation effect (eyewitness testimony) question influence imagination inflation

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Noam Chomsky

language = innate

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George A. Miller

short term memory has the capacity of about 7 (+/- 2) items.

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Wolfgang Kohler

chimpanzee experiments Insight learning divergent, creative thinking

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Robert Sternberg's intelligence theory

Successful intelligence; devised the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (analytical, practical, and creative)

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Formal reasoning

bottom up

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Cognitive Bias

The misinterpretation of information as a result of a faulty or rigid heuristic

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Representative Heuristic

placing stimulus into a category based on understandings and schemas that are learned by ear (not experienced)

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Availability Heuristic

Using experience, or most memorable information to place a stimulus in a category

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Creativity

Novel & valuable - Frontal Lobe - divergent

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Convergent thinking

narrowing solutions - left partial lobe

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Robert Sternberg's creativity theory

5 - VIIAC Expertise Imagination Venturesome personality Intrinsic motive Creative environment

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informal reasoning

top down - Heuristics & cognitive bias

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Anchoring Bias

(Cognitive Bias) a tendency to fixate on the first information

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Confirmation bias

(Cognitive Bias) a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

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Hindsight Bias

(Cognitive Bias) the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

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Rigidity

(Cognitive Bias) Rejecting new ideas in favor of our own

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functional fixedness

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving

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mental fixedness

Using previous success to block outside the box thinking

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mental model

a specific situation that is represented in a person's mind with two or more mental concepts interacting

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Syllogism

(formulaic) A form of deductive reasoning consists of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. like a mental formula for solutions

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Diagnosis

(formulaic) eliminating wrong answers

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A.I.

(formulaic) using formulas to form a solution

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intuition

an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

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automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information - low effort

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framing

the way an event is posed

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Intelligence

Ability to adapt and learn with experience and concepts

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Charles Spearman

creator of "g-factor", or general intelligence, concept - there is one intelligence & and each area interacts with the other. A score of one concept is indicative of another

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L.L. Thurstone

attacks spearman's g factor with 7 intelligences

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Flynn effect

The rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations

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Howard Gardner

8 intelligences!!!!! Savant Syndrome & islands of brilliance

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Mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

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Alfred Binet

mental age & earliest measuring of intelligence

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Francis Galton

Eugenics & artificial selection - Darwinist by tests

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Lewis Terman

Stanford-Binet test - ranks

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L. L. Thurstone

proposed that intelligence consisted of 7 different primary mental abilities

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David Wechsler

Developed WAIS and WISC (IQ tests)

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Irving Janis

groupthink - the opinion of the whole is better than the wisest individual

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Satoshi Kanazawa

some facets of intelligence are learned by experience and some by innate evolution

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Grit

passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals

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SQ3R Method

Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review

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spacing effect

time between studying to increase retention

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Testing effect

enhanced memory after retrieving (via recognition to questions)

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episodic memory vs semantic memory

Semantic = facts & context, episodic = dates and places

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Morphemes

the smallest meaningful units of language

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receptive language

ability to comprehend speech

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productive language

ability to produce words

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babbling stage

4 months

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one-word stage

age 1

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two-word stage

age 2 - telegraphic and on

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universal grammar

Noam Chomsky's theory that all the world's languages share a similar underlying structure

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language acquisition device

Chomsky's concept of an innate, prewired mechanism in the brain that allows children to acquire language naturally - not like other learned things by operant conditioning (skinner)

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Broca's aphasia

inability to produce speech - but can sing [frontal lobe]

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Wernicke's aphasia

inability to comprehend speech (and speak it) [middle of broca's and gyrus]

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Angular gyrus aphasia

no reading [occipital lobe]

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linguisitic determinism

language influences schemes

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bilingual advantage

bilingual children who learn to inhibit one language while using the other are better able to inhibit their attention to irrelevant information - stronger overall brains - creativity up

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Outcome vs. Process simulation

process simulation is more effective (focusing on process = success at task up)

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Language

our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

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general intelligence (g)

a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

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Low extreme (IQ)

70 and below, 1% of population, down sydrome

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mild

70-50 pts - 6th grade peak - social/verbal skills

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Moderate

50-35 pts - peak at 2nd grade - protected work/labor

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