apush heimler notes (unit 1-9)

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Aztecs

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267 Terms

1

Aztecs

-written language

-human sacrifice

-complex system of irrigation

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2

Tenochtitlan

the capital city of the Aztecs which consisted of 300k people

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3

Maya

-large cities

-complex irrigation

-temples+palaces for rulers

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4

Inca

-huge pop. (16m people)

-had fertile land in the mountain valleys

-elaborate irrigation system

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5

Maize

a nutritious crop that was cultivated by aztecs, incas, and mayas, that supported economic development, the settlement of people, advanced irrigation, and social diversification

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6

Columbian exchange

the transfer of food, animals, minerals, people and diseases between Africa, America, and Europe

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7

Feudalism

a system where peasants lived and worked under the noble class in exchange for armed protection

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8

Mercantilism

a system that was heavily dependent on gov. direction and intervention

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9

Encomienda system

introduced by Columbus that granted a portion of land to leading men and the natives who worked under that land were coerced into labor

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10

Requerimento

Pope granted Spanish monarchs the authority to claim lands in the Americas and convert the people

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11

Pueblo Revolt (1610)

the spanish were forcing native to convert and after having doughts and attacks from other native groups they blamed the spanish for their problem. Eventually the rest of the spanish pop. left

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12

Bartolome de las casas

argued on behalf of the natives and believed that Africans should endure enslaved labor in the America

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13

Jamestown

one of the first colonies in the Americas that was financed by joint-stock company. It failed due to famine and many of the people resorted to cannibalism

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14

Bacon’s rebellion

Nathaniel Bacon led poor farmers and indentured servants on an attack on the Indians and destroyed Berkeley’s plantations

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15

House of Burgesses

established in Virginia. Representatives assembly which could levy taxes on pop. and pass laws

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16

Mayflower Compact

In New England. Organized gov. on the model of self-government church congregation

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17

Navigation Acts

Required merchants to engage in trade with English colonies exclusively in English ships. Valuable trade items had to pass through British ports where they were taxed

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18

Colonial slave laws

-legally defined African laborers as chattel (property)

-made an institution that was passed from one generation to another

-laws became harsher and harsher

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19

Stono Rebellion

group of enslaved men stole weapons from a store and killed white owners of the store. Marched along the Stono River as more enslaved men joined and burned plantations and killed white folks

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20

Enlightenment

emphasized rational thinking against traditional and religious revelation

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21

John Locke

preached natural rights like life, liberty, and property

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22

Great Awakening

religious revival that was led by a group of preachers who were upset with the loss of faith during the enlightenment period

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23

Jonathan Edwards

a preacher during the great awakening that combined enlightenment ideas and religion

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24

George Whitefield

a preacher during the Great Awakening that traveled all colonies and spread the words of God

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25

French and Indian War

territorial dispute in the Ohio River Valley between French and British cause this war in 1754

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26

Albany Congress

delegates from several British Colonies met to discuss more organized colonial response to frontier defense, trade, and westward expansion

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27

Albany Plan of Union

introduced by Benjamin Franklin, decide of frontier defense, trade, and westward expansion

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28

Impressment

forced American men to join the ranks of the Royal Navy

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29

Salutary Neglect

British gov. practice that allowed North American colonies to be left largely on their own

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30

Quartering Act of 1765

kept British soldiers stationed in colonies and the colonists were responsible for soldiers food and housing

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31

Sugar Act

tax on coffee, wine, and enforced existing taxes on molasses

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32

Stamp Act of 1765

tax on all paper item

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33

Currency Act

prohibited colonial assemblies from printing their own paper currency

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34

Stamp Act Congress

delegates from nine colonies to accomplish basic goals to petition the British gov. to repeal the Stamp Act

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35

Declaratory Act

Parliament had the right to pass they wanted on the colonies

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36

Townshed Acts

levied taxes on items like paper, tea, and glass

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37

Boston Massacre

group of boys and young men were harassing British soldiers. Someone fired a gun and British soldiers fought back and 11 colonist were shot and 4 were dead

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38

Boston Tea Party

1773, members of the Sons of Liberty dumped 45 tons of British tea into the Boston harbor

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39

Continental Congress

1774, discussed the increasing legislative tyranny and despite different regional views, all agreed that colonies need to resist further violations of their liberty at the hands of Parliament

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40

Jean-Jaques Rosseau

“Social Contract.” The power to govern is in the hands of the people and they agreed to give up some power to the government as long as their natural rights are protected

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41

Montesquieu

argued for a republican gov. where power was split into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial

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42

Common Sense by Thomas Paine

put language to what the colonist were feeling

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43

Second Continental Congress

1776, a formal resolution for independence was put on the floor

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44

Battle of Saratoga

a turning point in the American Revolution because Franklin was able to persuade France to ally with Americas

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45

Battle of Yorktown

the battle during the American Revolution where the British surrendered

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46

Paris Peace Treaty

1783, recognized America as an independent nation

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47

Articles of Confederation

ratified in 1781 to become the new governing document of the United States

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48

Shays Rebellion

many farmers were in debt while they were fighting of in the revolution and had trouble paying of the debt due to inflation and new taxes so an angry militia headed down to town arsenal to arm themselves. Nobody could save Massachusetts because there was no President and proved that the Articles of Confederation was flawed

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49

Constitutional Congress

held in 1787 in Philadelphia and debated how the voices of the people should be represented (Virginia or New Jersey Plan)

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50

Virginia Plan

centralized state, two houses in congress, representative based on population

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51

New Jersey Plan

every state has equal representation

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52

The Great Compromise

House of reps. represented states based on population and senate had equal representation of two votes

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53

Three-Fifths Compromise

three out of five slaves would count towards a state population

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54

Federalist

wanted to ratify the constitution

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55

Federalist Paper

written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison that promoted the ratification of the Constitution

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56

Anti-federalist

didn’t want to ratify the constitution

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57

Federalism

the sharing of power between the national gov. and state gov.

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58

Supremacy Clause

the national law trumps state law whenever they contradict

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59

Jay’s rebellion

British agreed to give up post on the western frontiers of the American territory

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60

Pinckney Treaty

Spain agreed to let Americans use the port at New Orleans for trade along the Mississippi River

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61

Battle of Fallen Timbers

US army clashed with a confederacy of America Indian tribes and defeated them. Indians surrendered all lands in the Ohio Valley

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62

Whiskey Rebellion

farmers revolted whiskey tax and Washington stopped the revolt. This proved that the Constitution was working

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63

XYZ affair

the French were seizing American ships so a delegation was sent to negotiate a settlement instead the three frenchmen who met the delegation demanded a bribe

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64

Alien Act

made it possible to government to imprison or deport any non-citizens but mainly targeted Irish and Scottish people

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65

Sedition Acts

made it illegal to criticize the government publicly

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66

Virginia and Kentucky resolution

response to the Alien and Sedition act. States could nullify any laws passed by the federal government

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67

Republican Motherhood

mothers had to teach their children about republican government. In order to educate kids women need education

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68

Charles Willson Peale

artist who did the portrait of Washington

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69

Samuel Jennings

artist who painted women and black folks while emphasizing rationality and education

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70

John Trumbull

artist that painted the signing of the Declaration of Independence in romanticized way

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71

Election of 1800 (“Revolution of 1800”)

marked one of the few times in history power was transferred peacefully between rival parties

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72

Louisiana Purchase

land purchased from the French for 15m

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73

Marbury v. Madison

placed the idea of Judicial review

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74

McCulloch v. Maryland

the decision that declared that national law trumps state law whenever the two contradict

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75

War of 1812

the British continued the impressment of American citizens and the British aided Native Americans who were attacking migrant settlers leading to this war

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76

War Hawks

willing to get involved in the War of 1812 in order to defend American honor

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77

American System

proposed by Henry Clay and states that the gov should fund internal improvement, federal tariffs, and second bank of the US

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78

Missouri Compromise/Compromise of 1820

Missouri would enter as a slave state but Maine would be a free state. States above the 36 30’ line was free and below was slave

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79

Treaty of Ghent

the treaty ended the war between the US and Britain but left many thing unclear

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80

49th parallel

border between the US and Canada

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81

Monroe Doctrine

lands and nations in the Western Hemisphere were in the US’s backyard, thus their business

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82

Market Revolution

the linking of northern industries with western and southern farms which was created by advances in agriculture, industry, and transportation

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83

interchangeable parts

created by Eli Whitney. If pieces failed you could just change it out with another that fits the exact specification

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84

Factory system

factories could mass produce discreet parts of any given item with precision and workers could assemble them to be shipped to regional and more distant markets

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85

Cotton gin

sped up the process of separating cotton seeds from cotton fibers

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86

spinning machine

turned raw cotton into yarn

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87

subsistence farming

a person farmed to feed themselves

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88

commercial farming

a person grows cash crops to trade in markets

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89

Irish Potato Famine

people in Ireland were suffering from hunger and starvation

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90

Cult of Domesticity

a woman’s purpose is to have babies, raise them, and provide a home that was a haven of rest to her husbands who were working in the real world

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91

Panic of 1819

second bank of the US tightened lending money in order to control inflation but cause many state banks to close. This led to the decrease in demand for American exported goods leading to more unemployment and bankrupties

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92

Doctrine of Nullification

if a state judged a federal law to be unconstitutional the state could pretend the law didn’t exist

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93

Indian Removal Act of 1830

Cherokee nation in Georgia declared themselves a sovereign nation within the bounds of the state but when gold was found there Indians were forced to relocate west of the Mississippi River

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94

Worcester v. Georgia

The Supreme Court decision that believed that the Indian removal act was unconstitutional

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95

Trails of Tears

sickness and death of native americans that occurred as they moved west of the Mississippi river since they were ill prepared

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96

Transcendentalism

romantic view of the transcendent power and beauty of nature and emphasized the belief in human perfectibility

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97

Second Great Awakening

religious revival among Protestants that emphasized righteous living, personal, restraint, and strong moral rectitude that would lead a person and society to salvation

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98

American Anti-Slavery Society

led by William Garrison who argued that white folks needed to take a stand against slavery by persuasion

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99

Narrative of Fredrick Douglass

emphasized the dehumanization occurred not only in the enslaved but also the owner to perpetuate the institution of slavery

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100

Declaration of Sentiments and Resolution

written in the same form of the Declaration of Independence and listed the grievances of women against a sexist society

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