HUSH Ch. 19-22 Test

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Liberal Internationalism

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131 Terms


Liberal Internationalism

Woodrow Wilson’s foreign policy theory, which rested on the idea that economic and political freedom went hand in hand, and encouraged American intervention abroad in order to secure these freedoms globally.

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Panama Canal Zone

The small strip of land on either side of the Panama Canal. The Canal Zone was under U.S. control from 1903 to 1979 due to Theodore Roosevelt’s assistance in engineering a coup in Colombia that established Panama’s independence.

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Roosevelt Corollary

1904 announcement by President Theodore Roosevelt, essentially a corollary (proposition based off of an older one) to the Monroe Doctrine, that the United States could intervene militarily to prevent interference from European powers in the Western hemisphere.

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Dollar Diplomacy

A foreign policy initiative under President Howard Taft that promoted the spread of American influence through loans and economic investments from American banks

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Moral Imperialism

The Wilsonian belief that U.S. foreign policy should be guided by morality, and should teach other peoples about democracy. Wilson used this belief to both repudiate Dollar Diplomacy and justify frequent military interventions in Latin America.

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British passenger liner sunk by a German U-boat, May 7, 1915, creating a diplomatic crisis and public outrage at the loss of 128 Americans (roughly 10 percent of the total aboard); Germany agreed to pay reparations, and the United States waited two more years to enter World War I.

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Zimmermann Telegram

Telegram from the German foreign secretary to the German minister in Mexico, February 1917, instructing the minister to offer to recover Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona for Mexico if it would fight the United States to divert attention from Germany in the event that the United States joined the war.

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The Fourteen Points

President Woodrow Wilson’s 1918 plan for peace after WWI; at the Versailles peace conference, however, he failed to incorporate all of the points into the treaty.

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Selective Service Act

Law passed in 1917 to quickly increase enlistment in the army for the United States’ entry into World War I; required men to register with the draft.

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Committee on Public Information

Administration created by Wilson to explain US involvement in WWI and spread tons of pro-war propaganda such as:

  • Progressive ideas — spread self-gov abroad, industrial democracy at home

  • War being fought for liberty, US fighting for self-determination of oppressed people around the world, demonized Germans

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War Industries Board

Board run by financier Bernard Baruch that planned production and allocation of war materiel, supervised purchasing, and fixed prices, 1917–1919.

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  • Movement for getting rid of alcohol

  • Success during war, supported by employers, reformers, women, Protestants, etc.

  • Many breweries owned by Germans

  • Some also argued that grain should be used for food instead of beer

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Eighteenth Amendment

Prohibition amendment passed in 1919 that made illegal the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages; repealed in 1933.

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Nineteenth Amendment

  • Woman suffrage amendment passed in 1920

  • Factors like Alice Paul’s National Woman’s Party, Paul’s hunger strike, and women’s role in the war

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Espionage Act of 1917

1917 law that prohibited spying and interfering with the draft as well as making “false statements” that hurt the war effort.

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  • “Science” supporting anti-immigration, racial purity, no passing down “bad” genes

    • Immigrants would “contaminate” the American gene pool

    • Wanted to have a “healthier”/”higher quality” population

  • Positive __: encourage people with good genes to reproduce more

  • Negative __: sterilize people with bad genes

  • Buck v. Bell (1927) — SC case, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes upheld constitutionality of laws sterilizing inmates in mental institutions

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Sedition Act (1918)

1918 law that made it a crime to make spoken or printed statements that criticized the U.S. government or encouraged interference with the war effort.

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The Birth of a Nation

D. W. Griffith’s film glorifying the Ku Klux Klan as the defender of white civilization during Reconstruction, allowed by Wilson to premiere in the White House in 1915

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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

Founded in 1910, the civil rights organization that brought lawsuits against discriminatory practices and publishes The Crisis, a journal edited by African-American scholar W.E.B. Dubois.

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The Great Migration

Large-scale migration of southern blacks during and after WWI to the North, where jobs had become available during the labor shortage of the war years.

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Tulsa Riot/Tulsa Race Massacre

A race riot in 1921—the worst in American history—that occurred in Tulsa, Oklahoma, after a group of black veterans tried to prevent a lynching. Over 300 African-Americans were killed, and 10,000 lost their homes in fires set by white mobs.

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Marcus Garvey

The leading spokesman for Negro Nationalism, which exalted blackness, black cultural expression, and black exclusiveness. He called upon African-Americans to liberate themselves from the surrounding white culture and create their own businesses, cultural centers, and newspapers. He was the founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association.

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Red Scare of 1919–1920

Fear among many Americans after WWI of Communists in particular and noncitizens in general, a reaction to the Russian Revolution, mail bombs, strikes, and riots.

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Versailles Treaty

The treaty signed at the Versailles peace conference after World War I that established President Woodrow Wilson’s vision of an international regulating body, redrew parts of Europe and the Middle East, and assigned economically crippling war reparations to Germany, but failed to incorporate all of Wilson’s Fourteen Points.

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League of Nations

Organization of nations to mediate disputes and avoid war, established after World War I as part of the Treaty of Versailles; President Woodrow Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” speech to Congress in 1918 proposed the formation of the league, which the United States never joined.

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Warren Harding

  • Republican President (won 1920 election)

  • Pushed for a “return to normalcy” after WWI, repudiated “Wilsonism,” and led to the fall of the Progressives since he had no connection with them

  • Set the emergency Immigration Quota Acts

  • Died in office, succeeded by VP Calvin Coolidge

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Calvin Coolidge

  • Succeeded Warren Harding as president after Harding’s death

  • Big business guy

  • Isolationism, neutrality

  • National Origins Act reduced immigration by 80%

  • Kellogg-Briand Pact — agreement between major nations not to go to war

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Roaring Twenties

  • Era post WWI

  • Revolt against moral rules

  • Conservative politics, lots of Republican presidents

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Jazz Age

  • Post WWI

  • Music revolution, big change from traditional classical music

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Young women of the 1920s whose rebellion against prewar standards of femininity included wearing shorter dresses, bobbing their hair, dancing to jazz music, driving cars, smoking cigarettes, and indulging in illegal drinking and gambling.

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Sacco and Vanzetti Case

A case held during the 1920s in which two Italian-American anarchists were found guilty and executed for a crime in which there was very little evidence linking them to the particular crime.

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Charlie Chaplin

Famous actor guy during start of US celebrity culture

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Babe Ruth

Famous baseball guy during start of US celebrity culture

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Charles Lindbergh

  • Celebrity, famous for flying across the Atlantic Ocean

  • Antisemitic, part of the America First Committee, but this kind of stuff was mainstream during his time so don’t cancel him or something

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Teapot Dome Scandal

Harding administration scandal in which Secretary of Interior Albert B. Fall profited from secret leasing to private oil companies of government oil reserves at __, Wyoming and Elk Hills, California.

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Equal Rights Amendment

Amendment to guarantee equal rights for women, introduced in 1923 but not passed by Congress until 1972; it failed to be ratified by the states.

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Adkins v. Children’s Hospital

1923 Supreme Court case that reversed Muller v. Oregon (callback??? 😳), the 1908 case that permitted states to set maximum hours to protect working women. Justices ruled in __ that women no longer deserved special treatment because they could vote.

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Washington Naval Arms Conference

  • Held/attended by President Warren Harding

  • Make treaty to limit navies among great powers in order to save money and lessen chances of another world war

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Hays Code

Code adopted by the film industry in 1930 that enforced set of guidelines prohibiting movies from depicting nudity, long kisses, and adultery, and barred scripts that portrayed clergymen in a negative light or criminals sympathetically.

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Lost Generation

Artists who emigrated from US to Europe due to US materialism and conservatism (lots of censorship of art, literature, media, etc.)

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American Civil Liberties Union

Organization founded during World War I to protest the suppression of freedom of expression in wartime; played a major role in court cases that achieved judicial recognition of Americans’ civil liberties.

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Schenck v. United States

1919 U.S. Supreme Court decision upholding the wartime Espionage and Sedition Acts; in the opinion he wrote for the case, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes set the now-familiar “clear and present danger” standard.

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Anti-modernist Protestant movement started in the early twentieth century that proclaimed the literal truth of the Bible; the name came from The __, published by conservative leaders.

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Scopes “Monkey” Trial

1925 trial of John Scopes, Tennessee teacher accused of violating state law prohibiting teaching of the theory of evolution; it became a nationally celebrated confrontation between religious fundamentalism and civil liberties.

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Resurgence in 1915, 5 mil+ members (mostly white Protestant) by 1920s, very big in North and West, believed black ppl/immigrants endangered US civilization

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Immigration Quota Acts

  • Immigration Act of 1924

  • Restricted immigration to certain quotas

  • Only allowed 150k Eu immigrants

  • Barred entry of all Asians

  • Created “illegal alien” status (immigrants not in quota) and Border Patrol to arrest/deport them

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Harlem Renaissance

African-American literary and artistic movement of the 1920’s centered in New York’s Harlem neighborhood; writers Langston Hughes, Jean Toomer, Zora Neale Hurston, and Countee Cullen were among those active in the movement.

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Langston Hughes

African-American writer active in the Harlem Renaissance

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New Negro

Term used in the 1920s, in reference to a slow and steady growth of black political influence that occurred in northern cities, where African-Americans were freer to speak and act. This political activity created a spirit of protest that expressed itself culturally in the Harlem Renaissance and politically in “__” nationalism.

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Herbert Hoover

  • Against gov regulation of economy, pro public service, pro “associational action”/voluntarism (regulation from private agencies, non-gov relief)

  • Failed to respond well to Great Depression

    • Was advised that economic downturns were normal

    • Underestimated importance of consumer spending, said gov support weakens character

  • Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1930)

    • Help keep jobs in US

    • Caused other countries to also raise tariffs → exports drop by 2/3s

  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932)

    • Tried government intervention

    • Federal program to loan money to banks and other institutions to help them avert bankruptcy

  • Bonus Army

    • WWI Vets asked to get earlier pensions

  • 30% unemployment rate, lots of deprivation and starvation

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Great Depression

Worst economic depression in American history; it was spurred by the stock market crash of 1929 and lasted until WWII.

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Stock Market Crash

Also known as Black Tuesday, a stock market panic in 1929 that resulted in the loss of more than $10 billion in market value (worth approximately ten times more today). One among many causes of the Great Depression.

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New Deal

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s campaign promise, in his speech to the Democratic National Convention in 1932, to combat the Great Depression with a “new deal for the American people”; the phrase became a catchword for his ambitious plan of economic programs.

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Emergency Banking Act

Passed in 1933, the First New Deal measure that provided for reopening the banks under strict conditions and took the United States off the gold standard.

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Glass-Steagall Act

  • Barred commercial banks from becoming involved in the buying and selling of stocks in order to prevent irresponsible practices

  • Established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

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Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

Government system that insured the accounts of individual depositors, established under the Glass-Steagall Act

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Hundred Days

Extraordinarily productive first three months of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration in which a special session of Congress enacted fifteen of his New Deal proposals.

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National Recovery Administration

  • Controversial federal agency created in 1933 that brought together businesses and labor leaders to create “codes of fair competition” and “fair labor” policies, including a national minimum wage.

  • Established under the National Industrial Recovery Act

  • Standardized output, prices, and working conditions

  • Recognized union rights, gov support for “industrial freedom,” not free market

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Federal Emergency Relief Administration

  • Created by Congress in 1933

  • Made grants to local agencies that aided those impoverished by the Depression

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Public Works Administration

A New Deal agency that contracted with private construction companies to build roads, bridges, schools, hospitals, and other public facilities.

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Tennessee Valley Authority

Administrative body created in 1933 to control flooding in the Tennessee river valley, provide work for the region’s unemployed, and produce inexpensive electric power for the region.

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Dust Bowl

Great Planes counties where millions of tons of topsoil were blown away from parched farmland in the 1930s; massive migration of farm families followed.

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Federal Housing Administration

A government agency created during the New Deal to guarantee mortgages, allowing lenders to offer long-term (usually 30 year) loans with low down payments (usually ten-percent of acting price). It seldom underwrote loans in racially mixed or minority neighborhoods.

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Court Packing

President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s failed 1937 attempt to increase the number of U.S. Supreme Court justices from nine to fifteen in order to save his Second New Deal programs from constitutional challenges.

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Works Progress Administration

Part of Second New Deal; it provided jobs for millions of the unemployed on construction and arts projects.

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Fireside Chats

  • FDR’s method of political communication

  • Used radio to address Americans in their homes directly

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Four Freedoms

Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear, as described by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during his January 6, 1941, State of the Union address.

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Good Neighbor Policy

Policy proclaimed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in his first inaugural address in 1933 that sought improved diplomatic relations between the United States and its Latin American counterparts.

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Adolph Hitler

  • Ruler of Nazi Germany

  • Aggressive campaign to control all of Europe

  • Campaign against Jews

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Benito Mussolini

  • Italian leader

  • Founded fascism

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  • Britain and France’s policy of agreeing to Hitler’s demands in hopes of preventing war

  • FDR followed this policy at first

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M.S. St. Louis

  • Ship with Jewish refugees

  • US didn’t allow them into the country

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Neutrality Acts

Series of laws passed between 1935 and 1939 to keep the United States from becoming involved in war by prohibiting American trade and travel to warring nations.

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Joseph Stalin

  • Leader of Soviet Union

  • Signed Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact with Hitler in 1939 but joined the Allies later

  • One of the leaders of the “Grand Alliance”/”Big Three”

  • Wanted to control Eastern Europe which led to tensions between Big Three

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  • AKA “lightning war” (intense/quick military campaign)

  • Hitler and the Nazi’s aggressive campaign to invade/conquer Europe

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Royal Air Force

Britain used this to fight back against Germany’s devastating air attacks in the Battle of Britain

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Lend-Lease Act

1941 law that permitted the United States to lend or lease arms and other supplies to the Allies, signifying increasing likelihood of American involvement in World War II.

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Pearl Harbor

  • The Naval base in Hawaii bombed by Japan on December 7, 1941

    • JP hoped to weaken US naval power and gain access to oil in order to become dominant power in Pacific

  • Sparked FDR to ask Congress to declare war on JP, which caused Germany to declare war on US

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Axis Powers

In World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan.

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Winston Churchill

  • Great Britain’s leader

  • One of the leaders of the “Grand Alliance”/”Big Three”

  • Just wanted British Empire to stay intact after war

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June 6, 1944, when an Allied amphibious assault landed on the Normandy coast and established a foothold in Europe, leading to the liberation of France from German occupation.

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Systematic racist attempt by the Nazis to exterminate the Jews of Europe, resulting in the murder of over 6 million Jews and more that a million other “undesirables”

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Bracero Program

System agreed to by Mexican and American governments in 1942 under which tens of thousands of Mexicans entered the United States to work temporarily in agricultural jobs in the Southwest; lasted until 1964 and inhibited labor organization among farm workers since braceros could be deported at any time.

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Zoot Suit Riots

1943 riots in which sailors on leave attacked Mexican-American youths wearing flamboyant clothes

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Navajo Code Talkers

  • Among the ~25k Native Americans who served in WWII

  • Transmitted messages in their complex native language, which the Japanese could not decipher

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Japanese-American Internment

Policy adopted by the Roosevelt administration in 1942 under which 110,000 persons of Japanese descent, most of them American citizens, were removed from the West Coast and forced to spend most of World War II in internment camps; it was the largest violation of American civil liberties in the twentieth century.

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Korematsu v. United States

1944 Supreme Court case that found Executive Order 9066 to be constitutional. Fred __, an American-born citizen of Japanese descent, defied the military order that banned all persons of Japanese ancestry from designated western coastal areas. The Court upheld his arrest and internment.

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Double V

Led by the Pittsburgh Courier, the movement that pressed for victory over fascism abroad and over racism at home. It argued that since African-Americans were risking their lives abroad, they should receive full civil rights at home.

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V-E Day

  • “Victory against Europe”

  • May 8, 1945, the day World War II officially ended in Europe.

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Manhattan Project

Secret American program during WWII to develop an atomic bomb; J. Robert Oppenheimer led the team of physicists at Los Alamos, New Mexico.

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Albert Einstein

  • Made the theory of relativity

    • Atomic bomb would convert matter into energy

  • Among the many immigrant scientists who helped in the Manhattan Project

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Robert Oppenheimer

  • One of the key scientists who helped in the Manhattan Project

  • Head of the Los Alamos Laboratory

  • “Father of the atomic bomb”

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  • Energy = mass*(speed of light)^2

  • man

  • Shows that energy and mass can be converted

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  • Splitting of atoms that releases energy

  • CHAIN REACTION = NUCLEAR BOMB: Neutron → Uranium → radioactive isotope of Uranium splits, releases energy and neutrons → released neutrons → Uranium → radioactive isotope of Uranium splits, releases energy and neutrons → released neutrons → Uranium → radioactive isotope of Uranium splits, releases energy and neutrons → released neutrons → Uranium → radioactive isotope of Uranium splits, releases energy and neutrons → released neutrons → Uranium → radioactive isotope of Uranium splits, releases energy and neutrons → released neutrons → Uranium → radioactive isotope of Uranium splits, releases energy and neutrons → released neutrons → Uranium → radioactive isotope of Uranium splits, releases energy and neutrons → released neutrons → Uranium → radioactive isotope of Uranium splits, releases energy and neutrons → released neutrons → Uranium → radioactive isotope of Uranium splits, releases energy and neutrons → released neutrons → Uranium → radioactive isotope of Uranium splits, releases energy and neutrons → released neutrons → Uranium → radioactive isotope of Uranium splits, releases energy and neutrons → released neutrons → Uranium → radioactive isotope of Uranium splits, releases energy and neutrons → released neutrons → Uranium → radioactive isotope of Uranium splits, releases energy and neutrons

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Potsdam Conference

  • Last meeting of the major Allied powers

  • Took place in __ from July 17 to August 2nd 1945

  • U.S. President Harry Truman, Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, and British prime minister Clement Attlee finalized plans begun at Yalta

    • Agreed to establish military administration for Germany and place top Nazi leaders on trial for war crimes

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United Nations

Organization of nations to maintain world peace, established in 1945 and headquartered in New York.

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“Big Stick” Diplomacy


  • The policy held by Teddy Roosevelt in foreign affairs. The "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them. TR was fond of the proverb "speak softly and carry a big stick, you will go far"

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Kaiser Wilhelm


  • Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.

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George Creel


  • Director of the Committee on Public Information

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National Woman’s Party


  • Led by Alice Paul

  • Militant advocacy for woman suffrage

  • Group of followers chained themselves to White House fence and were sentenced to prison, where they led a hunger strike

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