The Odyssey

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Homer

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English

9th

97 Terms

1

Homer

Homeros (hostage), blind, composer of the Iliad and the Odysses

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2

Laertes

Odysseus father, king, has an orchard

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3

Pantheon

Order the universe Ex: God, demigod, king, slave

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4

Parthenon (noun)

A giant temple to honor of Athena

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5

Panathenaea

A festival for Athena

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6

Nohbody, Odysseus, Ulysses

inventor of the Trojan Horse, King of Ithica, Father of Telemachus, Husband of Penlope, very smart, good at lying, main character

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7

Penlope

weaver, weaves a shroud for father in law, wife of Odysseus, faithful wife, doesn't faint when she sees Ulysses.

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8

Telemachus

Far from war, eventuly King of Ithica, Fights along his fathers side

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9

Polis

City-state Ex: New York, Vatican

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10

Marathon

endrance test, was a town

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11

aegis

body armor Athena wears, people wear in battle

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12

Athena, Minerva

daughter of Zeus and very powerful, born a full grown adult, shield is her sign, only has a father not a mother

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13

Zeus, Jupiter, Jove

father of the gods, king of Gods, Mt. Olympus is wear he lives

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14

Poseidon, Neptune

God of the sea and earthquake, is on Ulysses side until Polyemus prays for him to have a hardship

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15

Cyclopes

A race of one eyed, giant, sharpened, canobilstic, stupid, and brute men

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16

Polyphemus

son of poseidon, Ulysses blinds him with a stick

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17

Hades, Pluto, Dis

God of the underworld

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18

Agamemnon

married to Clytemnestra, brother to Menelaus, gets killed by Clytemnestra

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19

Menelaus

Agamnenon's brother, husband to Helen

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20

Clytemnestra

cousin to penlope and sister to helen, child get sacrificed by husband

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21

Orestes

A child of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, kills Clytemnestra

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22

Tantalus

(tantalize) punished by being hungry and thrirsy in the Underworld, Ulysses sees in the underworld

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23

Sisyphus

a king in he underworld, always is pushing a rock up the hill

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24

Calypso

(bride), nymph, godess of nature, kept Ulysses on an island for 7 years

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25

Circe

a witch, very pretty, turns the men into pigs/swine

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26

Pericles

great leader, golden age

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27

Mt. Olympus

a real mountain, home of the gods

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28

suitors

men that want to marry widows or women, penlope's suitors get killed by Telemachus and Ulysses

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29

Antinous

in charge of the men that want to penlope, thought he should be king over Telemachus

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30

Scylla

A six headed monster (f)

<p>A six headed monster (f)</p>
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31

Charybdis

a worldpool (f)

<p>a worldpool (f)</p>
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32

Helios, Hyperion

sun god, kills the rest of the men, likes cows and has special cows the men eat

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33

Titans

(titanic) gigantic gods, had baby gods, childrenof mother earth

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34

Ithaca

Ulysses island kingdom

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35

Troy

where the 10 year fight is, where Helen was taken

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36

Helen

wife of menelaus, was taken by Paris and taken to troy, most pretty mortal

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37

Achillies

great warrior

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38

Paris

son of Priam, takes helen to troy, choosen to judge the beauty contest, was put in the wilderness as a child, kills Achilles, Kills himself later

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39

Priam

King of Troy, father of Paris

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40

Argos, Argus

Ulysses faithfull dog, hears ulysses voice after 20 years and drops dead, was treated badly by the suitors

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41

Phidias

designer of the buildings

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42

Calliope

goddess of epic poetry

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43

Mentor

Ulysses friend that takes care his family when he is gone, Athena disguesies herslef as him sometimes

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44

Aphrodite, Venus

winner of beauty contest, goddess of love, daughter of Zeus, bribed Paris with a beautiful girlfriend

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45

Hera, Juno

wife of Zeus, goddess of house wives

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46

Eris

goddess of troublemaking, leave the golden apple that started the beauty contest

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47

AESCHYLUS

First great Greek play writer, dies from turtle bring dropped on his head

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48

Flashback

a look back in time

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49

Muses

insperation for the arts

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50

siege

style of warfare used in the Trojan War, one side is inside city walls and one side is outside trying to get in

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51

Furies

(fury) sent to capture people by Zeus

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52

lotus eaters

temped flour or fruit to drug men

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53

Sirens

mermaid like creatures that sign beautiful song to enchant men

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54

Homeric epithet

Rosy-fingered dawn, wine-dark sea, Thunderbolt Zeus

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55

Homeric similie

similie on steroids

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56

Three main characters

Telemachus, Odysseus, Athena

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57

Thersias

ancient profit (can see the future), who Odysseus sees in the underworld

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58

Dilemma

a dificult choice between two unwanted choices

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59

Eumaeus

childhood friend of odysseus, raised as brothers, would have been a king, was taken, like Odysseus sister so was turned into a herder, very loyal to Odysseus

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60

Theme

It is NOT ENOUGH for a person TO BE BRAVE AND STRONG ONLY, for if a person is to accomplish great things and overcome GREAT OBSTACLES, he or she MUST BE INTELLIGENT and HAVE FAITH in God.

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61

Plot 1

Odysseus' STUGGLE TO RETURN FROM THE TROJAN WAR to his family in Ithica and once there to FIGHT ALONGSIDE HIS SON a they RECAPTURE THEIR HOME from the rebbellious suitors

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62

Plot 2

Telemachus' SEARCH FOR HIS FATHER, during which he DISCOVERS HIS MANHOOD, and then his return to Ithica to FIGHT ALONGSIDE HIS FATHER as they RECAPTURE THEIR HOME from the suitors.

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63

Plot 3

FANTASTIC STORIES of monsters and Gods Odysseus tells the Phaeacians in a long FLASHBACK OF HIS ADVENTURES. Examples include SCYLLA AND CHARYBDIS, THE CYCLOPS Polyphemus, the witch CIRCE, and others.

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64

Theme

The fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work

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The Power of Cunning over Strength

focuses on a "man of twists and turns" (1.1). Odysseus does have extraordinary strength, as he demonstrates in Book 21 by being the only man who can string the bow. But he relies much more on mind than muscle,

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66

Odysseus's strategic planning can bring about such a sure victory. Some of the tests in

..... Odysseus's long, wandering ordeal seem to mock reliance on strength alone. No one can resist the Sirens' song, for example, but Odysseus gets an earful of the lovely melody by having his crew tie him up

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67

The Pitfalls of Temptation

The initial act that frustrated so many Achaeans' homecoming was the work of an Achaean himself: Ajax (the "Lesser" Ajax, a relatively unimportant figure not to be confused with the "Greater" Ajax, whom Odysseus meets in Hades) raped the Trojan priestess Cassandra in a temple while the Greeks were plundering the fallen city. That act of impulse, impiety, and stupidity brought the wrath of Athena upon the Achaean fleet and set in motion the chain of events that turned Odysseus's homecoming into a long nightmare. I

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68

The Pitfalls of Temptation

The submission to temptation or recklessness either angers the gods or distracts Odysseus and the members of his crew from their journey: they yield to hunger and slaughter the Sun's flocks, and they eat the fruit of the lotus and forget about their homes.

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69

Motifs

recurring structures, contrasts, and literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text's major themes.

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70

Storytelling

in addition to delivering the plot to the audience, situates the epic in its proper cultural context. The Odyssey seems very conscious of its predecessor, the Iliad: Odysseus's wanderings would never have taken place had he not left for Troy; and the Odyssey would make little sense without the Iliad and the knowledge that so many other Greek heroes had to make nostoi, or homeward journeys, of their own. Homer constantly evokes the history of the Odyssey through the stories that his characters tell.

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71

Agamemnon tells the story of his murder, while Ajax's evasion prompts the story of his quarrel with Odysseus.

These stories, however, don't just provide colorful personal histories. Most call out to other stories in Greek mythology, elevating the Odyssey by reminding its audience of the epic's rich, mythic tradition.

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72

Disguises

The gods of Greek literature often assume alternate forms to commune with humans. In the Odyssey, Athena appears on earth disguised as everything from a little girl to Odysseus's friend Mentor to Telemachus. Proteus, the Old Man of the Sea whom Menelaus describes in Book 4, can assume any form, even water and fire, to escape capture.

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73

examples of disguise

From the first line of the epic, Homer explains that his story is about a "man of twists and turns" Odysseus is a natural master of disguise, and the plot of the epic often turns on his deception. By withholding his true identity from the Cyclops and using the alias "Nobody," for example, Odysseus is able to save himself and his crew.

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74

Seductresses

Women are very important figures in the Odyssey, and one of the most prominent roles they fulfill is this____________.Circe and Calypso are the most obvious examples of women whose love becomes an obstacle to Odysseus's return.

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75

Symbols

....objects, characters, figures, and colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts.

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76

Summary: Book 1

The narrator of the Odyssey invokes the Muse, asking for inspiration as he prepares to tell the story of Odysseus. The story begins ten years after the end of the Trojan War, the subject of the Iliad. All of the Greek heroes except Odysseus have returned home.

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77

Summary: Book 1

With the consent of Zeus, Athena travels to Ithaca to speak with Telemachus. Assuming the form of Odysseus's old friend Mentes, Athena predicts that Odysseus is still alive and that he will soon return to Ithaca. She advises Telemachus to call together the suitors and announce their banishment from his father's estate. She then tells him that he must make a journey to Pylos and Sparta to ask for any news of his father.

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78

Summary: Book 1

To Penelope's surprise, Telemachus rebukes her. He reminds her that Odysseus isn't the only Greek to not return from Troy and that, if she doesn't like the music in the men's quarters, she should retire to her own chamber and let him look after her interests among the suitors.

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79

Summary: Book 1

Although Telemachus suspects that his visitor was a goddess in disguise, he tells them only that the man was a friend of his father.

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80

Summary: Book 5

But if you only knew, down deep, what pains are fated to fill your cup before you reach that shore, you'd stay right here. . . .

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81

Summary: Book 5

All the gods except Poseidon gather again on Mount Olympus to discuss Odysseus's fate. Athena's speech in support of the hero prevails on Zeus to intervene. Hermes, messenger of the gods, is sent to Calypso's island to tell her that Odysseus must at last be allowed to leave so he can return home. In reply, Calypso delivers an impassioned indictment of the male gods and their double standards.

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82

Summary: Book 5

Calypso complains that they are allowed to take mortal lovers while the affairs of the female gods must always be frustrated. In the end, she submits to the supreme will of Zeus. By now, Odysseus alone remains of the contingent that he led at Troy; his crew and the other boats in his force were all destroyed during his journeys. Calypso helps him build a new boat and stocks it with provisions from her island. With sadness, she watches as the object of her love sails away.

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83

Summary: Book 5

After eighteen days at sea, Odysseus spots Scheria, the island of the Phaeacians, his next destination appointed by the gods. Just then, Poseidon, returning from a trip to the land of the Ethiopians, spots him and realizes what the other gods have done in his absence. Poseidon stirs up a storm, which nearly drags Odysseus under the sea, but the goddess Ino comes to his rescue.

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84

Summary: Book 5

Athena too comes to his rescue as he is tossed back and forth, now out to the deep sea, now against the jagged rocks of the coast. Finally, a river up the coast of the island answers Odysseus's prayers and allows him to swim into its waters. He throws his protective veil back into the water as Ino had commanded him to do and walks inland to rest in the safe cover of a forest.

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85

Summary Book 9

Reluctantly, Odysseus tells the Phaeacians the sorry tale of his wanderings. From Troy, the winds sweep him and his men to Ismarus, city of the Cicones. The men plunder the land and, carried away by greed, stay until the reinforced ranks of the Cicones turn on them and attack. Odysseus and his crew finally escape, having lost six men per ship. A storm sent by Zeus sweeps them along for nine days before bringing them to the land of the Lotus-eaters, where the natives give some of Odysseus's men the intoxicating fruit of the lotus. As soon as they eat this fruit, they lose all thoughts of home and long for nothing more than to stay there eating more fruit. Only by dragging his men back to the ship and locking them up can Odysseus get them off the island.

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86

Summary Book 9

Odysseus and his men then sail through the murky night to the land of the Cyclopes, a rough and uncivilized race of one-eyed giants. After making a meal of wild goats captured on an island offshore, they cross to the mainland. There they immediately come upon a cave full of sheep and crates of milk and cheese. The men advise Odysseus to snatch some of the food and hurry off, but, to his and his crew's detriment, he decides to linger. The cave's inhabitant soon returns—it is the Cyclops Polyphemus, the son of Poseidon. Polyphemus makes a show of hospitality at first, but he soon turns hostile. He devours two of Odysseus's men on the spot and imprisons Odysseus and the rest in his cave for future meals.

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87

Summary Book 9

Odysseus wants to take his sword to Polyphemus right then, but he knows that only Polyphemus is strong enough to move the rock that he has placed across the door of his cave. Odysseus thus devises and executes a plan. The next day, while Polyphemus is outside pasturing his sheep, Odysseus finds a wooden staff in the cave and hardens it in the fire. When Polyphemus returns, Odysseus gets him drunk on wine that he brought along from the ship. Feeling jovial, Polyphemus asks Odysseus his name. Odysseus replies that his name is "Nobody" (9.410). As soon as Polyphemus collapses with intoxication, Odysseus and a select group of his men drive the red-hot staff into his eye. Polyphemus wakes with a shriek, and his neighbors come to see what is wrong, but they leave as soon as he calls out, "Nobody's killing me" (9.455).

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88

Summary Book 9

When morning comes, Odysseus and his men escape from the cave, unseen by the blind Polyphemus, by clinging to the bellies of the monster's sheep as they go out to graze. Safe on board their ships and with Polyphemus's flock on board as well, Odysseus calls to land and reveals his true identity. With his former prisoners now out of reach, the blind giant lifts up a prayer to his father, Poseidon, calling for vengeance on Odysseus.

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89

Odysseus's big mistake

Odysseus's eventual revelation of his identity to Polyphemus ultimately proves foolish, and, because it embodies a lack of foresight, stands in stark contrast to the cunning prudence that Odysseus displays in his plan to escape from the cave. Though his anger at Polyphemus for devouring his shipmates is certainly understandable, and though Polyphemus's blind rock-throwing fury eggs him on, Odysseus's taunts are unnecessary. By telling Polyphemus his name, Odysseus pits his mortal indignation against Poseidon's divine vengeance. This act of hubris, or excessive pride, ensures almost automatically that Odysseus will suffer grave consequences. Indeed, his eventual punishment costs him dearly: Poseidon's anger wipes away the very thing that he gains by cleverly obscuring his name—the safety of his men.

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90

Odysseus's big mistake

Odysseus is here going through the motions of confirming his kleos (the glory or renown that one earns in the eyes of others by performing great deeds). He wants to make sure that people know that he was the one who blinded Polyphemus, explicitly instructing Polyphemus to make others aware of his act. Like the heroes of the Iliad, Odysseus believes that the height of glory is achieved by spreading his name abroad through great deeds.

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91

Big Picture Plot

Ten years have passed since the fall of Troy, and the Greek hero Odysseus still has not returned to his kingdom in Ithaca. A large and rowdy mob of suitors who have overrun Odysseus's palace and pillaged his land continue to court his wife, Penelope. She has remained faithful to Odysseus. Prince Telemachus, Odysseus's son, wants desperately to throw them out but does not have the confidence or experience to fight them. One of the suitors, Antinous, plans to assassinate the young prince, eliminating the only opposition to their dominion over the palace

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92

Big Picture Plot

On Mount Olympus, Zeus sends Hermes to rescue Odysseus from Calypso. Hermes persuades Calypso to let Odysseus build a ship and leave. The homesick hero sets sail, but when Poseidon, god of the sea, finds him sailing home, he sends a storm to wreck Odysseus's ship. Poseidon has harbored a bitter grudge against Odysseus since the hero blinded his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, earlier in his travels. Athena intervenes to save Odysseus from Poseidon's wrath, and the beleaguered king lands at Scheria, home of the Phaeacians. Nausicaa, the Phaeacian princess, shows him to the royal palace, and Odysseus receives a warm welcome from the king and queen. When he identifies himself as Odysseus, his hosts, who have heard of his exploits at Troy, are stunned. They promise to give him safe passage to Ithaca, but first they beg to hear the story of his adventures.

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93

Big Picture Plot

Odysseus spends the night describing the fantastic chain of events leading up to his arrival on Calypso's island. He recounts his trip to the Land of the Lotus Eaters, his battle with Polyphemus the Cyclops, his love affair with the witch-goddess Circe, his temptation by the deadly Sirens, his journey into Hades to consult the prophet Tiresias, and his fight with the sea monster Scylla. When he finishes his story, the Phaeacians return Odysseus to Ithaca, where he seeks out the hut of his faithful swineherd, Eumaeus.

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94

Big Picture Plot

Though Athena has disguised Odysseus as a beggar, Eumaeus warmly receives and nourishes him in the hut. He soon encounters Telemachus, who has returned from Pylos and Sparta despite the suitors' ambush, and reveals to him his true identity. Odysseus and Telemachus devise a plan to massacre the suitors and regain control of Ithaca.

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95

Big Picture Plot

When Odysseus arrives at the palace the next day, still disguised as a beggar, he endures abuse and insults from the suitors. The only person who recognizes him is his old nurse, Eurycleia, but she swears not to disclose his secret. Penelope takes an interest in this strange beggar, suspecting that he might be her long-lost husband. Quite crafty herself, Penelope organizes an archery contest the following day and promises to marry any man who can string Odysseus's great bow and fire an arrow through a row of twelve axes—a feat that only Odysseus has ever been able to accomplish.

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96

Big Picture Plot

At the contest, each suitor tries to string the bow and fails. Odysseus steps up to the bow and, with little effort, fires an arrow through all twelve axes. He then turns the bow on the suitors. He and Telemachus, assisted by a few faithful servants, kill every last suitor.

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97

Big Picture Plot

Odysseus reveals himself to the entire palace and reunites with his loving Penelope. He travels to the outskirts of Ithaca to see his aging father, Laertes. They come under attack from the vengeful family members of the dead suitors, but Laertes, reinvigorated by his son's return, successfully kills Antinous's father and puts a stop to the attack. Zeus dispatches Athena to restore peace. With his power secure and his family reunited, Odysseus's long ordeal comes to an end.

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