Joints - Anatomy Lecture final 1

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Arthrology

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53 Terms

1

Arthrology

the study of joints

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Articulation = ??

Joint

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3

Joint

Where 2 bones meet

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4

What are the features of arthrology

Linke skeletal system

Permit movement

protects organs

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5

Bony Joints (synostosis)

immovable - formed by ossification of fibrous or cartilaginous joints

EX: mandible, epiphyseal line

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6

Fibrous Joints (synarthrosis)

little/no movement - bound by collagen fibers

EX: Skull sutures

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7

Cartilaginous Joints (amphiarthrosis)

little movement - bound by cartilage

EX: epiphyseal plate

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8

Synovial Joints (diarthrosis)

freely moveable - fluid-filled cavity (most important to quality of life)

EX: elbow joint, hip joint, shoulder joint

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9

What are the 3 fibrous joints

Sutures - Gomphoses - Syndesmoses

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10

Fibrous Joints: Sutures

Skull - no movement because of really short fibers

EX: Serrate suture (coronal and sagittal)

Lap suture (squamos)

Plane suture (palatine processes of maxillae)

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Fibrous Joints: Gomphoses

Attachment of tooth to socket (jaw) by tiny ligaments

EX: in teeth

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12

Fibrous joints: Syndesmoses

Longer collagen fibers —> more mobility

EX: fontanels

interosseous membrane (radius/ulna & tibia/fibula)

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13

What are the 2 cartilaginous joints

Synchondroses - Symphyses

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14

Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses

Bound by hyaline cartilage

EX: rib 1 to sternum, epiphyseal plates

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Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses

Bound by fibrocartilage

EX: Pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs

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16

Articular cartilage

hyaline cartilage

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Synovial membrane

secretes synovial fluid

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synovial fluid

Viscous/slippery = lubricant

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19

Ligament

Connects bone to bone

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20

Tendon

connects muscle to bone

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Bursa

synovial fluid filled sacs = cushion/reduces friction

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Meniscus

pad of fibrocartilage between bones = shock absorption, stability

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Range of motion

degrees through which joint can move (Important to for performance assessment!!)

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What is the range of motion for a joint determine by?

  • Structure/shape of the articular surfaces

  • Strength/tautness of ligaments

  • Muscles/tendons - pirs of muscles oppose each otther

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Axes of rotation

Movements are described in reference to 3 anatomical planes

frontal - sagittal - transverse

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What are the degrees of movement/freedom

  • Multiaxial - all 3 planes

  • Biaxial - 2 planes

  • Monaxial (uniaxial) - 1 plane

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27

What are the 6 synovial joints

Ball-and-Socket - Condylar - Saddle - Plane - Hinge - Pivot

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Synovial Joints: Ball-and-Socket

Multiaxial

EX: Shoulder, Hip (coxal)

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Synovial Joints: Condylar (Ellipsoid)

Biaxial

EX: Metacarpophalangeal, TMJ (only moveable joint of skull)

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Synovial Joints: Saddle

Biaxial

EX: Trapeziometacarpal (base of thumb), sternoclavicular

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Synovial Joints: Plane (Gliding)

2 flat surfaces slide over one another

Biaxial

EX: Intertarsal, Intercarpal, Vertebral processes

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Synovial Joints: Hinge

Monaxial

EX: Elbow, knee, interphalangeal

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Synovial Joints: Pivot

Bones spins on axis

Monaxial

EX: Atlantoaxial joint, Radioulnar joint

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Describe the anatomical position

all joints in zero position movements refer to moving to/from zero position

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35
<p>Flexion</p>

Flexion

Decrease angle of joint < 180 degrees

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<p>Extension</p>

Extension

Straighten joint (return to zero)

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<p>Hyperextension</p>

Hyperextension

Increase angle of joint beyond 180 degrees (behind frontal plane)

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<p>Abduction</p>

Abduction

Away from midline

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<p>Adduction</p>

Adduction

Towards midline

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<p>Elevation</p>

Elevation

raise vertically in frontal plane

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<p>Depression </p>

Depression

Lower vertically in frontal plane

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<p>Protraction</p>

Protraction

Movement anteriorly in transverse plane

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<p>Retraction </p>

Retraction

Movement posteriorly in transverse plane

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<p>Rotation</p>

Rotation

turning on fixed axis

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<p>Supination </p>

Supination

Turns palms to face anteriorly

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<p>Pronation</p>

Pronation

Turn palms to face posteriorly

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<p>Ulnar flexion</p>

Ulnar flexion

Toward ulna

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<p>Radial flexion</p>

Radial flexion

toward radius

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<p>Opposition of thumb</p>

Opposition of thumb

move thumb to touch any finger tip

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<p>Dorsiflexion</p>

Dorsiflexion

elevate toes toward leg

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<p>Plantar flexion</p>

Plantar flexion

toes pointed

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<p>Inversion</p>

Inversion

sole of foot medially

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<p>Eversion</p>

Eversion

sole of foot laterally

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