Chronic Test 2

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Have a basic understanding of the different modalities offered

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Have a basic understanding of the different modalities offered

Relaxation, medication, guided imagery, yoga, tai chi, acupuncture, sound healing, healing touch (ETC)

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Understanding of the role of herbs and potential to interfere with other medications

Herbal medicines are not approved for use as drugs and are not regulated by the FDA, although many herbs are safe and effective “Natural” does not equal say. Some interact with prescription and over the counter medications, look for us pharmacopeia (USP) dietary supplement mark

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Why do people seek complimentary modalities?

Seeking ways to improve health and well-being or relieve symptoms associated with chronic, even terminal illness or the side effects of conventional treatments for them. Having a holistic health philosophy, transformational experience, greater control over own health

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What is meant by complimentary modalities, alternative modalities, and integrative health?

Complimentary: interventions that can be used with conventional medical interventions, thus complimentary. Alternative: if there is non-mainstream practice that is used instead of conventional medical care; it is rare people use only alternative approaches Integrative: combination of allopathic and complimentary and alternative modalities

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Role of insulin in blood glucose control

Insulin is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas, the stimulus for insulin is HIGH blood glucose, signals cells to take in glucose from the blood and this glucose is used for energy

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The importance of maintaining good glycemic control

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Review medications given for DM, teaching a patient how to self- administer insulin, meds that are given as a result of side effects of DM, i.e., peripheral neuropathy

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Normal blood fasting blood glucose values, normal A1C values

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Post prandial blood glucose, what is it, would you expect it to be high or low?

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Diabetic foot care/assessment related to peripheral neuropathy

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Review DKA, HHS

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Have an understanding of the ethical principles, i.e., beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy etc.

Autonomy: respect rights of patients make health care decisions Nonmaleficence: avoid causing harm Beneficence: benefit the patient Justice: give each his/her due and act fairly Fidelity: keep promises Veracity: accountability, privacy, confidentiality

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Have an understanding of professional values important to nursing

Altruism: concern for welfare and well-being of others Autonomy: right to self-determination Human dignity: respect for the inherent work and uniqueness of individuals and populations Integrity: acting according to code of ethics and standards of practice Social justice: upholding moral, legal, and humanistic rights

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What is advocacy, how might it be demonstrated

Primary commitment to the patient Prioritization of good of individual patient rather than society in general Evaluation of competing claims of patients autonomy and patient well being

Areas of concern for patient advocates: representation of patient, promoting self-determination, whistle blowing, being politically active

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Ethical responsibilities, i.e, maintaining confidentiality

Nurses should: cultivate the virtues of nursing; understand ethical theories and dictate and justify professional conduct; be familiar with codes of ethics for nurses and standards for professional nursing conduct

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What is values classification? How can we clarify what is important?

A process by which people come to understand their own values and value system

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What is an ethical dilemma, how might one be resolved?

Ethical problems: paternalism, deception, privacy and social media, confidentiality, allocation of resources, valid consent or refusal, conflicts with technology, unprofessional incompetent unethical or illegal physician/nursing practice, short staffing issues, beginning-of-life and end-of-life issues

Ethical dilemmas: a situation where a nurse must decide between competing values and know that no matter what choice they make, there are consequences.

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Have an understanding of what legal issues nurses may face, i.e., negligence, defamation of character, invasion of privacy etc.

Duty: the ability to prove the defendant owed you a duty of care not to cause you or others harm. Breach: the ability to prove that a violation of standard care resulted in an injury for you or a family member. Cause in fact: the ability to prove a correlation between the negligent or harmful action that took place and the negative consequence you suffered. Proximate cause: the ability to prove a direct link between a negligent act and the injury that resulted from that action. Damages: the ability to prove you suffered injuries, loss, or other expenses because of someone else’s negligence.

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Legal/rules of conduct for nurses

Nurse practice acts, standards, credentialing ?

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Competent practice

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What is meant by battery, assault?

  • An assault is when a person commits an act that puts a victim in reasonable apprehension of harmful or offensive contact.

  • Battery, on the other hand, is when someone commits an act that actually inflicts harmful or offensive contact on the victim.

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What is a tort?

A tort is an act or omission that gives rise to injury or harm to another and amounts to a civil wrong for which courts impose liability. Can be intentional (assault, battery) or unintentional (ommision)

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What is an incident report?

A report that details an event where a person is injured or property is damaged

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Interventions to meet spiritual needs

Familiarize the patient with religious services within the institution Respect the patients need for privacy during prayer Assist the patient to obtain devotional objects and protect them from loss or damage Arrange for the patient to receive sacrament if desired Attempt to meet dietary restrictions Arrange for a priest, minister, or rabbi to visit if the patient wishes

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What is religion, what is spirituality

Religion: term used to describe cultural or institutional religion Spirituality: anything that pertains to the person’s relationship with a nonmaterial life force or higher power

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Diagnosis applied to spirituality

Readiness for enhanced spiritual well-being Spiritual distress

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Know terms associated with religion and spirituality, i.e., hope, faith etc.

Faith: a confident belief in something for which there is no proof or evidence Hope: ingredient in life responsible for a positive outlook Love: connectedness with others Spiritual health and healing: spiritual needs are met Spirituality and everyday living: in health and illness

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What is an atheist, agnostic?

Atheists: no belief in a higher power Agnostic: you do believe in a higher power, but there is no proof so it is an uncertain belief

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Left-sided HF – physiology and expected findings, i.e., respiratory problems

Formerly known as congestive hart failure - typically caused by hypertension, CAD, and valvular disease Not all cases involve fluid accumulation Two types: systolic and diastolic Clinical manifestations: weakness, fatigue, dizziness, acute confusion, pulmonary congestion, oliguria, orthopnea

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Right-sided HF – physiology and expected findings, i.e., peripheral edema

Causes: left sided HF, right ventricular MI, pulmonary hypertension Right ventricle cannot empty completely Increased volume and pressure in venous system and peripheral edema Clinical manifestations: JVD, increased abdominal girth, ascites, hepatomegaly, dependent edema

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Pulmonary edema

A condition of too much fluid in the lungs, causes shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing up pink frothy sputum, can be life threatening, caused typically by heart conditions Assess for early signs (crackles in bases), high fowlers position, oxygen therapy, rapid acting diuretics, continual assessment

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Importance of daily weights

Weight is the most reliable indicator of fluid gain/loss 500 ml of retained fluid is one pound of weight gain

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How to we assess a patient’s degree of weakness/fatigue?

Can you walk up a flight of stairs without become out of breath? Can you perform ADLs?

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Digoxin, what is it, why is it given, considerations for administering?

Used to treat heart failure, typically in combination with a diuretic. It is a cardiac glycoside. It enhances contractility, reduces HR, slows conduction through the AV node, inhibits sympathetic activity Tolerated well and used often (tried and true drug) Can be given through IV Should assess apical pulse for a full minute before giving it

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What is Lasix, when would it be administered. What are the effects of Lasix?

Lasix is a loop diuretic, lasix is used to treat fluid retention from heart failure, it works to get rid of excess water so it is important to monitor electorlyte levels (mainly potassium)

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What do we teach our patients regarding home maintenance of HF

Diet, taking medications properly, signs of worsening heart failure

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