AP Government

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Social Contract

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56 Terms

1

Social Contract

A contract between the government and the governed. With this contract, the governed understands that they must give up some of their natural rights in exchange for protection from the government, alongside other benefits

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2

Natural Rights

Rights given to every person that can not be taken away by government.

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3

Popular Sovereignty

Idea that the people should have the main voice in the government, and the government should be held accountable to the people.

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4

Republicanism

Representative form of government that is limited

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5

Participatory Democracy

Citizens have the power to decide on a policy, but them politicians that are elected by the people implement the people's decisions

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6

Pluralist Democracy

Nobody dominates policymaking, but instead, different groups of people compete for influence in the government

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7

Elite Democracy

Small group of people makes decisions for everybody; these people are usually wealthy and well-educated

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8

Articles of Confederation

First form of written governmentS

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9

Shay's Rebellion

Revolt led by Daniel Shay and showed the weakness and lack of control of the Articles of Confederation

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10

Federalists

Supported ratification of the Constitution

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11

Anti-Federalists

Opposed ratification of the Constitution

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12

Federalism

Having shared powers between the national, state, and local governments

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13

Check and balances

Having systems incorporated into the government that prevent it from abusing its power and becoming too powerful

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14

Separation of Powers

Having authority and jurisdiction divided up in the government

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15

Limited Government

Government cannot do anything it wants because it is restricted by a written document (Constitution)

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16

The Great Compromise

In one house, number of representatives each state gets is based on their population. In the other house, the number of representatives for each state is the same. Creates bicameral legislature.

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17

Electoral College

Body that determines how the President and Vice President gets elected.

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18

Three-Fifths Compromise

Each slave was counted as 3/5ths of a person when it came to determining representation in congressC

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19

Enumerated powers

Powers explicitly giver to Congress in the Constitution

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20

Implied powers

Powers not expressed in the constitution but are understood powers given to the federal government

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21

Inherent powers

Powers of the President

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22

Reserved powers

Powers reserved for the states (10th amendment)

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23

Privileges and Immunities Clause

States can't discriminate against people based on what state they from

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24

Full Faith and Credit Clause

States must trust documents that come from other states

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25

Extradition

If you commit a crime and flee to a different state, the state you fled to must bring you back to the state you committed the crime in.

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26

Commerce clause

Government can regulate interstate commerce

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27

Necessary and Proper Clause

Government can stretch its enumerated powers in order to perform its job

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28

McCulloch v. Maryland

Maryland tried to tax the Second Bank of the United States in an attempt to close it. The owner of the bank refused to pay the tax and Maryland sued. Maryland argued that they could tax any business in the state and that the federal government was expanding their powers too far, since they shouldn't be able to open a national bank. McCulloch, the cashier of the Baltimore branch of the bank, argued that under the necessary and proper clause, the government could create a bank. Plus, according to the supremacy clause, taxing is state interference with a federal law, which is illegal. The Supreme Court voted unanimously in favor of McCulloch

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29

United States v. Lopez

Congress passed the Gun-Free School Zones Act, which prohibited people from carrying a gun in a school zone. Lopez was found with a gun in a school zone, and the case reached the Supreme Court. Lopez argued that Congress never had the authority to pass the law in the first place, and the US argued that through the elastic (necessary and proper) and commerce clauses, Congress had the power to pass that law. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Lopez, stating that guns were not related to commerce, and therefore Congress didn’t have the power to pass that law

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30

Filibuster

Member holds the Senate floor to prevent a bill from going to vote

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31

Cloture

Used to end a filibuster. Need 3/5th senates votes

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32

Standing Committees

Committee that are always in operation

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33

Conference committee

Committee formed with members from both the senate and the house to iron out differences in similar legistlation

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34

Select committee

Committee created for a specific purpose and will eventually end

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35

Joint committee

Committee with people from both the Senate and the House that is created for a specific reason

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36

Discretionary spending

Programs in which congress and the president have to renew spending for it every year

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37

Mandatory spending

Programs in which the government has already made a commitment to pay

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38

Pork Barrel legislation

When congressmen negotiate for legislation that helps their specific district but not the whole country

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39

Logrolling

When congressmen agree to support each other's bills

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40

Gerrymandering

Redistricting strategically to ensure one party gets more representation in that district, a process that can lead to a majority to have representation in congress

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41

Redistricting

Redrawing of district lines for representation

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42

Reapportionment

Delegation of representatives to different districts based on population- determines which states get more representation

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43

Trustee

Representative votes based on what they think is right, even if it is different from what their constituents want

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44

Delegate

Representative votes based on what his constituents want, even when other representatives don't agree with what the constituents want

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45

Baker v. Carr

Tennessee residents were upset that the government had not redistricted in quite some time so the districts didn’t reflect the current population, causing residents in rural areas’ votes to count more than people in urban areas. The Supreme Court ruled that they could make decisions on the fairness of districts under the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment to make sure everyone’s vote had the same weight.

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46

Shaw v. Reno

North Carolina residents were mad about a majority-minority district and the case reached the Supreme Court where the government ruled that race can’t be the predominant factor in redistricting because that violates the 14th amendment

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47

Cabinent

Groups of advisors that aid the president on numerous topics that he may not be as knowledgeable in

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48

Bill of Rights

First 10 amendments of the constitution that protect individual liberties and rights of the people

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49

Due Process clause of 14th Amendment

Prevents state governments from taking away people's rights to privacy

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50

Liberalism

Political ideology where people believe in less government control over political and social issues, but more government control over economies

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51

Conservatism

Political ideology where people believe the government should have more control over political and social issues, but less over economies

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52

15th Amendment

Suffrage to African American men

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53

17th Amendment

Gave people the right to directly elect Senators instead of senators being elected by state legislature

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54

19th amendment

Gave women suffrage

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55

1965 Voting Rights Act

Banned practices like poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses that were created to purposefully disenfranchise people of color

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56

26th Amendment

Gave 18 year olds suffrage

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