history exam study guide

studied byStudied by 81 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

magna carta

1 / 53

Tags and Description

US History

54 Terms

1

magna carta

a charter of liberties agreed to by king John of England; it made the king obey the same laws as citizens

New cards
2

constitution

a set of basic principles and laws that states the powers and duties of the government

New cards
3

virginia statute for religious freedom

a document that declared that no person could be forced to attend a particular church or be required to pay tax money to a church (religious freedom)

New cards
4

suffrage

the right to vote

New cards
5

Articles of Confederation

the document that created the first central government for the US; was replaced by the constitution in 1789

New cards
6

ratification

official approval

New cards
7

- Magna Carta

- English Bill of Rights

- Mayflower Compact

- Declaration of Independence

What documents influenced ideas about government in the United States?

New cards
8

- trading issues

- Great Britain cut off trade

- Spain cut off trade in the Mississippi river

What problems did the United States experience with Spain and Great Britain?

New cards
9

To fix the Articles of Confederation

Why did Madison and Hamilton call for the constitutional convention?

New cards
10

constitutional convention

a meeting held in Philadelphia at which delegates from the states wrote the constitution

New cards
11

virginia plan

the plan for government proposed at the constitutional convention in which the national government would have supreme power and the legislative branch would have two houses with representation determined by state population

New cards
12

new jersey plan

a proposal to create a unicameral legislature with equal representation of states rather than representation by population

New cards
13

great compromise

an agreement worked out at the Constitutional Convention establishing that a state's population would determine representation in the lower house of the legislature, while each state would have equal representation in the upper house of the legislature

New cards
14

3/5 compromise

an agreement worked out at the Constitutional Convention stating that only three-fifths of the slaves in a state would count when determining its population for representation in the lower house of Congress

New cards
15

legislative branch

Congress; responsible for proposing and passing laws

New cards
16

executive branch

the president/governor/mayor; makes sure laws are carried out

New cards
17

judicial branch

the courts; interprets laws

New cards
18

checks and balances

a system established by the Constitution that prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful

New cards
19

antifederalists

people who opposed ratification of the Constitution

New cards
20

To revise the Articles of Confederation

Why did the confederation congress call for a constitutional convention?

New cards
21

federalists

people who supported ratification of the Constitution

New cards
22

federalist papers

a series of essays that defended and explained the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the proposed national government

New cards
23

amendments

official change, correction, or addition to a law or constitution

New cards
24

Bill of Rights

the first 10 amendments to the constitution; ratified in 1791

New cards
25

No taxation without representation

an expression used by colonists to protest taxes passed by the British king and parliament

New cards
26

Boston Massacre

an incident in which British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists, killing five people

New cards
27

Boston Tea Party

a protest against the Tea Act in which a group of colonists boarded British tea ships and dumped more than 340 chests of tea into Boston Harbor

New cards
28

Intolerable Acts

laws passed by Parliament to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party and to tighten government control of the colonies

New cards
29

First Continental Congress

a meeting of colonial delegates in Philadelphia to decide how to respond to the closing of Boston Harbor, increased taxes, and abuses of authority by the British government; delegates petitioned King George III, listing the freedoms they believed colonists should enjoy

New cards
30

Shot Heard 'Round the World

a phrase that refers to the opening shot of the battles of Lexington and Concord

New cards
31

Battles of Lexington and Concord

marked the start of the American War of Independence

New cards
32

Battle of Bunker Hill

a revolutionary war battle in Boston that demonstrated that the colonists could fight well against the British army

New cards
33

Dorchester Heights

a site where Colonists expelled British forces in Boston in 1776, overlooks the harbor and the South Boston neighborhood

New cards
34

George Washington

Commander of the Continental Army

New cards
35

Continental Army

the army created by the second continental congress in 1775 to defend the american colonies from Britain

New cards
36

patriots

American colonists who fought for independence from Great Britain during the Revolutionary War

New cards
37

redcoats

British soldiers who fought against the colonists in the American Revolution; so called because of their bright red uniforms.

New cards
38

minutemen

American colonial militia members ready to fight at a minute's notice

New cards
39

Common Sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain

New cards
40

Thomas Paine

Author of Common Sense; argued that citizens should make laws, not kings and queens.

New cards
41

Thomas Jefferson

Wrote the Declaration of Independence; argued that all people possess unalienable rights, including the rights of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness"

New cards
42

loyalists

colonists who sided with Britain in the American Revolution

New cards
43

Declaration of Independence

the document written to declare the colonies free from British rule

New cards
44

Mercenaries

hired foreign soldiers

New cards
45

Battle of Trenton

a Revolutionary War battle in New Jersey in which Patriot forces captured more than 900 Hessian troops

New cards
46

Battle of Princeton

was a battle of the revolutionary war that was fought near Princeton, New Jersey.

New cards
47

Battle of Saratoga

a Revolutionary War battle in New York that resulted in a major defeat of British troops; marked the Patriots' greatest victory up to that point in the war

New cards
48

Battle of Yorktown

the last major battle of the revolutionary war; site of British general Charles Cornwallis's surrender to the patriots in Virginia

New cards
49

Treaty of Paris

A peace agreement that officially ended the Revolutionary War and established British recognition of the independence of the United States.

New cards
50

General Charles Cornwallis

British general who fought the Patriots in the south; surrounded at Yorktown and surrendered to George Washington

New cards
51

Spain

What European country controlled much of North and South America after the Treaty of Paris?

New cards
52

Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay

Who helped negotiate the treaty of Paris?

New cards
53

shortage of food, clothing, and medicine

What difficulties did the patriots face at Valley Forge?

New cards
54

France and Spain

Which European countries helped the colonists in the Revolutionary War?

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 58 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 59 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 58 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 68 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard235 terms
studied byStudied by 103 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard316 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)