APUSH Chapter 1 Notes

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Time Period of chapter 1

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Time Period of chapter 1

33,000 BC to 1769 CE

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Canadian Shield

Zone undergirded by ancient rock, first part of North American landmarks

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Regions

Biomes formed during the Ice Age , rivers begin to cross thru America

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America's Geography

Made America nearly unraidable

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Incas

Indians in Peru, sophisticated rock building

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Aztecs

Mexico, complex civilizations, advanced agriculture

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Animal Roles

Travel, building, and farming which propelled civilizations

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Nation-States

Comparable to Aztecs, outside of the main nation

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Cahokia

Mississippian Settlement relying on corn with a population of 25,000

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Three Sister Farming

Use of Maize, Beans, and Rice. Each plant helped another grow. Gave Natives a better diet, used by Cherokee and Choctaw tribes

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Corn

Main product of Native Americans, staff of life and foundation

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Terraform

Native's wanted to keep the natural landscape but newcomers would alter it to their liking for their purposes

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Europe's Trade

Drive toward Asia, African penetration, and accidental discovery of North America

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Crusades

Took military control in the land of Islam, caused European exploration. Europe lost, which created a higher demand for trade

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Middlemen

Muslims who had a rough time en route for spices

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Caravel

A type of sail on a ship that could go with or against wind

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Plantation

Large, commercial agriculture for exploitation of slave labor. Shaped the destiny of the new world

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Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China

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Columbian Exchange

Exchange between Europeans and Natives, combination of old and new worlds

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Treaty of Tordesillas

Dividing land with Portugal and Spain from Columbus

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Encomienda

Government commended Indians to colonists to Christianize them

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Noche Triste

Sad night, Aztecs drove the Spanish down

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Black Legend

Conquerers tortured and butchered Indians, stole everything and greatly effecting their ways of life

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Capitalism

Economic system from Europe that balanced its money

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Mestizo

Mixed Indians with European heritage

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Conquistadors

Spanish leaders who conquered the Native lands

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Battle of Acoma

Spanish victory, cut off a foot of all surrendering Indians

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Pope's Rebellion

Surpressing Native Religions for Catholicism

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Glaciers

Shaped geography

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Where did our ancestors most likely come from?

China over the Beringa land bridge

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2nd Migration

Travel through water

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Cultures

Each tribe adapted to local environment, 54 mil people and 2000+ languages

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Paleolithic

Ended nomads, no longer a need for constant travel

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Ahasazi

Certain way of apartment style and hunting style

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Mississippian Culture

Built mounds to avoid floods, fertile soil

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Eastern Woodlands

Longhouses, communal property, live with the environment, Iroquois

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Norse

First europeans to visit America in Vinland, did not spread word

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Leif Erikson

First Viking to locate America in 1001, reached Vinland in Canada

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Astrolabe

Told latitude but not longitude

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European Society

Men and nobility had power, little to no inheritance

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Africa

Europe was aware but never made contact, traded with the Portuguese, took gold and slaves, founded American plantation systems

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Columbus' Ships

Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria which found the Bahamas

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Ecosystem

Impacted from unintentional spread of plants, diseases, and animals

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Pope 1493

Divides Spain and Portugal

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Brazil

Only land in Portuguese territory

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Balboa

First European to see Pacific by crossing Panama

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Magellan

Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain; he commanded an expedition that was the first to circumnavigate the world

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Ponce de Leon

Spanish explorer who accompanied Columbus on his second trip in 1493; in 1513 he discovered Florida while searching for the legendary Fountain of Youth

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Cibola

Mystical city of gold never found, probably in Coronado

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De Soto

Explored the Mississippi River

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Mayans

Focus on calendars and astronomy

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Legend of Quetzicoati

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Pizarro

Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima

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Smallpox

Most devestating disease to the Natives

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Pope's Rebellion 1680

Kill Priests and destroy Catholic settlements

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King Phillip

Protected colonists from the muslims

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Viceroy

governor of a country or province who rules as the representative of his or her king or sovereign

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