Wrld History Final Review

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What was the period called where countries dominated other countries or regions politically, economically, or culturally?

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1

What was the period called where countries dominated other countries or regions politically, economically, or culturally?

imperialism

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2

name one of the five reasons why countries became imperialistic

need for raw materials, need for new markets, Whito Man’s Burden, national security/nationalism, money to invest

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3

Who were the only two African countries which were not colonized?

Ethiopia and Liberia

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4

What was the significance of the Berlin Conference?

A meeting without Africans present that created a plan for colonizing in Africa.

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5

Name two of the seven European countries which colonized parts of Africa.

Great Britain, Italy, France, Belgium, Portugal, Spain, Germany

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6

Which of the European countries built the largest colonial empire in the world?

Great Britain

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7

What caused the Sepoy Rebellion in India? Why?

Sealing bullet casings with beef and pork fat; violated Hindu and Muslim dietary laws

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8

How was China’s colonial history different than many other countries’?

China was divided into spheres of influence

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9

What substance did the British introduce to China to open it up for British trade?

opium

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10

What three countries today were colonized as French Indochina?

Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia

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11

What ruling class replaced the peninsulares in Latin America?

creoles

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12

What was the name of the doctrine issued by the U.S. to keep European powers out of Latin America?

Monroe Doctrine

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13

What was canal opened in 1914 which cut travel distance?

Panama Canal

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14

Name two of the four main causes of World War I.

nationalism, European rivalries [imperialism], alliances, militarism

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15

What nickname was given to the Balkan Peninsula prior to the war?

powder keg of Europe

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16

What was the incident, which began World War I?

assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and Sophie

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17

World War I began with an incident occurring on what date?

June 28, 1914

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18

Who were the two main opposing camps in World War I?

Central Powers vs. Allied Powers

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19

At the time, what was World War I known as?

Great War

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20

Name one of the two main reasons why the U.S. entered the war?

the Zimmermann telegram, a return to unrestricted submarine warfare

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21

Where was the meeting held to determine German losses after the war?

Versailles

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22

Name three of the Big Four attending the treaty of Versailles.

Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Woodrow Wilson

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23

Name two conditions placed on Germany in the peace treaty.

Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France. The size of its miltary was reduced. It was required to pay reparations. German troops were forbidden in the Rhineland. War guilt

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24

Name two wars which proved that Russia's military and technology was inferior to that of other industrialized nations

Crimean, Russo-Japanese, World War I

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25

Who was the person who was exiled out of Russia and later returned to lead the Bolshevik movement?

Lenin

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26

What was the slogan of the Bolsheviks?

“Peace, Land, and Bread”

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27

Who was the dictator which emerged prior to World War II in Italy?

Benito Mussolini

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28

Who was the dictator which emerged prior to World War II in Germany?

Adolph Hitler

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29

Who was the dictator which emerged prior to World War II in the USSR?

Joseph Stalin

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30

Name two causes of the Great Depression.

Overproduction of goods, Competition for farm products abroad, The Stock Market crashed, American Banks called back their loans with foreign countries

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31

Name two of the four pieces of land which Hitler was allowed to keep prior to World War II becoming a declared war.

the Sudetenland, Austria, the Rhineland, Czechoslovakia

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32

What were the two main opposing camps in World War II?

Axis Powers vs. Allied Powers

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33

Name two countries on each side which fought against each other in WWII.

Japan, Germany, and Italy France, Great Britain, the U.S., China and the USSR

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34

What years did World War II begin and end?

1939-1945

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35

Who was the first British prime minister of the war and the one who advocated appeasement?

Neville Chamberlain

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36

What systems of fortifications were built by France and German prior to WWII?

Maginot Line, Siegfried Line

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37

What was unusual about the Battle of Dunkirk?

a naval battle in which British civilians helped to rescue allied soldiers

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38

Why did the U.S. declare war and when?

the attack on Pearl Harbor; December 8, 1941

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39

What two countries signed a nonaggression pact prior to WWII?

Germany and the USSR

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40

What event caused World War II to become declared?

Hitler’s invasion of Poland

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41

Who was the successor to Neville Chamberlain as Britain’s prime minister?

Winston Churchill

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42

What do we call the deliberate attempt to destroy an entire group of people?

genocide

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43

What were the two locations where atomic bombs were dropped?

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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44

Who was nicknamed the Desert Fox?

Erwin Rommel

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45

What was the name of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France led by Dwight D. Eisenhower?

D-Day

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46

What two countries were the superpowers?

U.S., U.S.S.R

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47

Define Cold War.

a struggle between the two superpowers which stopped just short of actual war

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48

What peacekeeping body was formed in 1945?

United Nations

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49

What were satellite countries?

the name given to the countries under the control of the USSR

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50

What was the iron curtain and who named it this?

imaginary line separating communist Europe from non-communist Europe; Winston Churchill

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51

What was containment?

the policy to prevent the spread of communism in the world

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52

What was the Truman Doctrine?

it gave military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism

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53

What was the Marshall Plan?

it gave money to rebuild Europe after WWII to prevent communism there

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54

What was NATO?

alliance of countries that if one member was attacked all would come to its defense

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55

What does the name NATO stand for?

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

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56

What was the USSR’s response to NATO? What did they form?

Warsaw Pact

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57

What was the purpose of the SALT agreements between the Soviet Union and the United States which were signed in the 1970s?

to limit the number of nuclear weapons held by each side

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58

What was the name of the invasion when the U.S. trained Cuban exiles to try to overthrow Fidel Castro?

Bay of Pigs

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59

Who was the U.S. President during both the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis?

John F. Kennedy

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60

What was the Cuban Missile Crisis?

The Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba aimed at the U.S.

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61

How did the Cuban Missile Crisis end?

the U.S. placed a naval blockade around Cuba until the missiles were removed

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62

Who was the Soviet leader who succeeded and then shocked Soviet leaders when he denounced Joseph Stalin?

Nikita Khrushchev

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63

Why was it significant when the Berlin Wall came down in 1989?

Germany became a united country in 1990

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64

What country was occupied by U.S. troops after WWII opening the country to widespread democratic, social, and economic reforms?

Japan

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65

What was the Marshall Plan?

gave money to European countries to rebuild after WWII

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66

Why did the Korean War occur and what was the outcome?

North Korea invaded South Korea and in the end, there remained two Koreas

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67

Why did the Vietnam War occur and what was the outcome?

There were two phases. In the first phase, the French tried to reclaim Vietnam from the Japanese. In the second phase, North Vietnamese invaded South Vietnam. In the end, Vietnam became one united country, all communist.

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68

What is the total of all goods and services produced inside a country in a year called?

GDP- Gross Domestic Product

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69

Who was the nationalist leader of China during and after WWII?

Jiang Jieshi/Chiang Kai-shek

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70

Who was the communist leader of China during and after WWII?

Mao Zedong

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71

In 1949, in the years after WWII, who emerged victorious to lead China, the communists or the nationalists?

communists

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72

What was the term given for pooling all the peasant land in China (and the Soviet Union) into state-owned farms that were supposed to be more efficient?

collectivization

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73

Was the Great Leap Forward (to increase farming and industrial output) successful? Explain.

NO, low-quality goods were produced, peasants had no incentive to work hard, famine occurred, as many as 55 million Chinese starved to death

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74

Since the USSR and China were both communist, have they always been strong allies? Explain.

NO, while they were at first, during the 1950s there was a “thaw” in their relations. The U.S. took advantage of this by playing the “China card”—supporting China to isolate the USSR

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75

What was the significance of the 38th parallel in Korea?

It was the line dividing North and South Korea

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76

What began the Korean War?

North Korea invaded South Korea

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77

Why did the U.S.-led United Nations forces become involved in the Korean War?

to prevent communism from spreading into South Korea

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78

Besides Korea, what other nation was divided into a communist north and a non-communist south in the years after WWII?

Vietnam

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79

After Japan invaded Vietnam in WWII, what European country tried to re-exert its control in Vietnam?

France

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80

Who was the communist guerrilla leader in Vietnam during the 1960s-1970s?

Ho Chi Minh

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81

What was the significance of the Battle of Dienbienphu in 1954?

the French were defeated in Vietnam

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82

What was the domino theory?

the belief that if one country fell to communism, all the surrounding countries would fall too

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83

What was the outcome of the Vietnam War after the U.S. withdrawal?

Vietnam became one united communist country

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84

What marked the end of the Cold War?

not only the satellite countries broke away from the Soviet Union but the USSR itself broke apart into 15 separate republics

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85

What did the USSR stand for?

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

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86

Who was the Russian leader near the end of the Cold War?

Mikhail Gorbachev

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87

What country broke away from India in 1947?

Pakistan

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88

Why did Pakistan break from India in 1947?

India is mainly Hindu and Pakistan worried their Muslim religion would be overshadowed

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89

Pakistan was actually two countries—West Pakistan and East Pakistan. When East Pakistan broke away what was the name of the new country it formed in 1971?

Bangladesh

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90

Half of the African nations experienced a coup d’etat. What does this mean?

military overthrow of the gov’t

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91

When Jews began to leave Europe in large numbers after the Holocaust and went to Palestine, what was the United Nations response?

the UN divided Palestine into two regions

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92

In 1948, the Jews declared the country of Palestine was now the country of ? .

Israel

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93

Israel and the Arabs fought against each other in four wars. Who won each of them?

Israel

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94

Why were the Jews particularly upset when the Arabs attacked in the Yom Kippur War?

this is the holiest day of the Jewish calendar- the day of atonement

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95

What international organization boycotted the U.S. in 1973 for its aid to Israel?

OPEC

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96

What was the separation of races in Africa called?

apartheld

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97

Who was the leader in South Africa that was imprisoned for over 20 years and then became the first black president there?

Nelson Mandela

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98

What city in the Middle East is important to three religions which has made it difficult to negotiate peace there?

Jerusalem

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99

What do we mean by 1st world countries? (two words)

Industrialized democracies

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100

What do we mean by 2nd world countries?

industrialized with a history of communism

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