Studied by 1 person

0.0(0)

Get a hint

Hint

1

Population growth rate. Also known as intrinsic growth rate.

The number of offspring an individual can produce in a given time period, minus the deaths of the individual or its offspring during the same period.

New cards

2

Biotic potential

Under ideal conditions with unlimited resources available, every population has a maximum potential for growth.

New cards

3

K-selected species

A species with a low intrinsic growth rate that causes the population to increase slowly until it reaches the carrying capacity of the environment.

New cards

4

Carrying capacity

The limit to the number of individuals that can be supported by an existing habitat or ecosystem, and is denoted as K.

New cards

5

r-selected species

A species that has a high intrinsic growth rate, and their population typically increases rapidly.

New cards

6

Overshoot

When a population becomes larger than the environmentās carrying capacity.

New cards

7

Dieback (die-off)

A rapid decline in a population due to death.

New cards

8

Survivorship curve

A graph that represents the distinct patterns of species survival as a function of age.

New cards

9

Type I survivorship curve

A pattern of survival over time in which there is high survival throughout most of the life span, but then individuals start to die in large numbers as they approach old age.

K-selected

New cards

10

Type II survivorship curve

A pattern of survival over time in which there is a relatively constant decline in survivorship throughout most of the life span.

New cards

11

Type III survivorship curve

A pattern of survival over time in which there is low survivorship (a high death rate) early in life with few individuals reaching adulthood.

R-selected

New cards

12

Density-dependent factor

A factor that influences an individualās probability of survival and reproduction in a manner that depends on the size of the population. (Food) K

New cards

13

Density-independent factor

A factor that has the same effect on an individualās probability of survival and reproduction at any population size. (Tornado)

New cards

14

Population growth models

Mathematical equations that can be used to predict population size at any moment in time.

New cards

15

Fecundity

The ability to produce an abundance of offspring.

New cards

16

Exponential growth model

A growth model that estimates a populationās future size after a period of time based on the biotic potential and the number of reproducing individuals currently in the population.

New cards

17

J-shaped curve

The curve of the exponential growth model when graphed.

New cards

18

Logistic growth model

A growth model that describes a population whose growth is initially exponential, but slows as the population approaches the carrying capacity of the environment.

New cards

19

S-shaped curve

The shape of the logistic growth model when graphed.

New cards

20

Limiting resource

A resource that a population cannot live without and that occurs in quantities lower than the population would require to increase in size.

New cards

21

Demography

The study of human populations and population trends.

New cards

22

Demographer

A scientist in the field of demography.

New cards

23

Immigration

The movement of people into a country or region, from another country or region.

New cards

24

Emigration

The movement of people out of a country or region.

New cards

25

Crude birth rate (CBR)

The number of births per 1,000 individuals per year.

New cards

26

Crude death rate (CDR)

The number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year.

New cards

27

Net migration rate

The difference between immigration and emigration in a given year per 1,000 people in a country.

New cards

28

Life expectancy

The average number of years that an infant born in a particular year in a particular country can be expected to live, given the current average life span and death rate in that country.

New cards

29

Infant mortality

The number of deaths of children under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births.

New cards

30

Child mortality

The number of deaths of children under age 5 per 1,000 live births.

New cards

31

Environmental justice

The study of the disproportionate exposure to environmental hazards experienced by people of color, recent immigrants and people of lower socio-economic backgrounds; and is both an academic field and a social movement.

New cards

32

Age structure diagram

A visual representation of the number of individuals within specific age groups for a country, typically expressed for males and females.

New cards

33

Population pyramid

An age structure diagram that is widest at the bottom and smallest at the top, typical of developing countries.

New cards

34

Developing countries

Countries with relatively low levels of industrialization and income.

New cards

35

Developed countries

Countries that have relatively high levels of industrialization and income.

New cards

36

Population momentum

Continued population growth after growth reduction measures have been implemented.

New cards

37

Total fertility rate (TFR)

An estimate of the average number of children that each woman in a population will bear throughout her childbearing years.

New cards

38

Family planning

The regulation of the number or spacing of offspring through the use of birth control.

New cards

39

Replacement-level fertility

The total fertility rate required to offset the average number of deaths in a population in order to maintain the current population size.

Developed-2.1

World-2.3

New cards

40

Doubling time

The number of years it takes a population to double.

New cards

41

Rule of 70

A method which dictates that by dividing the number 70 by the percentage population growth rate we can determine a populationās doubling time.

doubling time (years)= 70/ pop growth %

New cards

42

Theory of demographic transition

A theory that states that a country moves from high to lower birth and death rates as development occurs and that country moves from a preindustrial to an industrialized economic system.

New cards

43

New cards