zanzot exam 1

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systematics

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Tags and Description

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80 Terms

1

systematics

the study of diversification

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2

taxonomy

the naming of groups of organisms

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3

classification

assigning organisms to hierarchical groups

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4

taxon

a named group of organisms

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5

phylogeny

evolutionary history

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6

List the taxonomic hierarchy

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

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7

how is the taxonomic hierarchy written (italized, capitalized, etc)

Domain -> Family = Capitalized, Genus = Capitalized & italicized, species -> italicized

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8

monophyletic

a lineage with 1 common ancestor

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9

polyphyletic

a lineage or trait found in independent lineages

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10

paraphyletic

a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants

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11

sister taxa

pairs of clades that share common ancestry

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12

branch points

a point where 2 lineages diverged to create a new species

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13

rooted trees

1 node in a phylogeny is determined to be the oldest ancestor

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14

clade

a lineage of organisms that descend from a common ancestor

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15

grade

a group of organisms that share similarities but no ancestor

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16

divergent evolution

evolution of homologous characteristics into new forms

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17

convergent evolution

evolution of analogous characteristics

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18

homology

based on shared ancesty

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19

analogy

not based on shared ancestry

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20

apomorphic

a derived characteristic

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21

plesiomorphic

an ancestral characteristic

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22

synapomorphic

a shared, derived characteristic

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23

symplesiomorphic

a shared, ancestral characteristic

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24

autopomorphic

an unshared, derived characteristic

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25

describe the features of a prokaryote

no nucleus, no mitochondria, no cytoskeleton, no chloroplast

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26

are virus's alive?

no because they can't reproduce independently (no organelles)

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27

describe the basic morphology of prokaryotic cells

coccus (ball), bacillus (rod-shape), spirillum (spiral)

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28

cell wall

peptidoglycan (bacteria) & psuedo-peptidoglycan (archaebacteria)

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29

fimbrae

shafts of protein, allows adhesion to host cells (velcro)

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30

capsule

gluey layer outside cell wall, allows adhesion to host cells

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31

pili

straw used to transfer plasmids by conjugation

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32

endospore

"suit of armor", allows cell to hibernate until safe

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33

flagella

tail used for movement (don't actually exist in prokaryotes)

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34

conjugation

plasmids passed via pili

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35

transformation

plasmids from environment

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36

transfection

virus-mediated gene transfer

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37

positive phototaxis

movement towards light

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38

negative chemotaxis

movement away from a chemical stimulus

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39

free living

exist without a host

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40

mutualistic

exist with a host

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41

decomposer

gain nutrients from dead things

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42

bio films

slimy village of bacteria

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43

list the major bacteria groups

Proteobacteria, Chlamydias, Spirochetes, Cyanobacteria, Gram-Postive bacteria

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44

list the major archaebacteria groups

Euryarcheota, Crenarcheota, Korarcheota, Nanoarcheota

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45

list the synapomorphies shared by eukaryotes

sexual life-cycles, membrane-bound organelles, linear chromosome

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46

describe the evolutionary trends observed in eukaryotes

ancestral -> derived unicellular -> colonial -> multicellular zygotic -> gameto -> sportic isogamy -> anisogamy -> oogamy

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47

what clade are plantae in?

Archaeplastida

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48

what clade are animalia in?

Unikonta

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49

what clade are fungi in

Unikonta

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50

name the phyla of the Unikonta

Tubulinea, Myxogastria, Entomoeba

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51

name the phyla of the Archaeplastida

Plantae, Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta

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52

name the phyla of the SAR

Phaeophyta, Bacillariophyta, Apicomplexa, Dinoflagellata, Cilophora, Foraminifera, Cercozoa, Radiolaria

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53

name the phyla of the Excavata

Diplomonadida, Parabasala, Kinetoplastida, Euglenozoa

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54

what does SAR stand for?

Stramenopiles, Alveolates, Rhizarians

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55

zygotic life cycle

haploid dominant, occurs in fungi & some protists

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56

gametic life cycle

diploid dominant, occurs in animals & some protists

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57

sporic life cycle

occurs in plants & some protists

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58

what clade does Diplomonadida belong to?

Excavata

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59

what clade does Phaeophyta belong to?

SAR (Stramenopiles)

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60

what clade does Parabasala belong to?

Excavata

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61

what clade does Kinetoplastida belong to?

Excavata

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62

what clade does Euglenozoa belong to?

Excavata

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63

what clade does Bacillariophyta belong to?

SAR (Stramenopiles)

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64

what clade does Plantae belong to?

Archaeplastida

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65

what clade does Apicomplexa belong to?

SAR (Alveolates)

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66

what clade does Dinoflagellata belong to?

SAR (Alveolates)

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67

what clade does Charophyta belong to?

Archaeplastida

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68

what clade does Cilophora belong to?

SAR (Alveolates)

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69

what clade does Formaminifera belong to?

SAR (Rhizaria)

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70

what clade does Cercozoa belong to?

SAR (Rhizaria)

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71

what clade does Radiophyta belong to?

SAR (Rhizaria)

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72

what clade does Chlorophyta belong to?

Archaeplastida

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73

what clade does Rhodophyta belong to?

Archaeplastida

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74

what clade does Tublinea belong to?

Unikonta

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75

what clade does Myxogastria belong to?

Unikonta

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76

what clade does Entomoeba belong to?

Unikonta

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77

what clade does Nucleariida belong to?

Unikonta

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78

what clade does Fungi belong to?

Unikonta

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79

what clade does Choanoflagellata belong to?

Unikonta

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80

what clade does Animalia belong to?

Unikonta

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