ISU PSY 350 Exam #3 Corrected

studied byStudied by 75 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

What do all sexual disorders have in common--this something may be regarded as the defining characteristic of sexual disorder?

1 / 88

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
89
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
89 Terms
1
New cards

What do all sexual disorders have in common--this something may be regarded as the defining characteristic of sexual disorder?

Unable to participate in the social practice of "making love"

New cards
2
New cards

What are "sexual dysfunctions?" (Distinguished from "sexual disorder")

Disabilities having to do with performance of the sexual act or satisfactions derived from it. To qualify as a dysfunction it must be (chronic vs occasional) (could be global or specific)

New cards
3
New cards

What are the varieties of sexual dysfunctions that were mentioned in class

Disorders of desire, disorders or excitement, disorders of orgasm, sexual pain disorder

New cards
4
New cards

Disorders of Desire

Male hypoactive sexual desire, female sexual interest/arousal disorders

New cards
5
New cards

disorder of excitement

male erectile disorder

New cards
6
New cards

Disorders of Orgasm

early ejaculation, delayed ejaculation, female orgasmic disorder - difficulty achieving orgasm

New cards
7
New cards

Sexual Pain Disorder

Sex is physically painful

New cards
8
New cards

What psychological causes of sexual dysfunction were mentioned in class?

  1. Negative emotional state: anger, anxiety 2. Negative sexual experiences: rape, incest; 3. Negative views of sex; taught it was dirty, sinful 4. Dysfunctional cognitions: maladaptive thoughts during sexual encounters

New cards
9
New cards

Sexual misunderstanding - what is the common difference between men & women in the significance they attach to the act of sexual intercourse? How can this difference lead to problems in their relationship?

Female: thinks he doesn't care about her anymore, just wants her body. She doesn't think sex is a way to make them become closer. Male: thinks she is unloving, asexual, and manipulative. Sec is a way to express closeness but if there is anger in the relationship, sex is a way to restore the closeness Issues because they both have views that are different but not true. If they are not close, she will not initiate sex but he will and that will make her think that he just wants her body and doesn't want to work out the issues. She will try other bids to try to become close, like talking, and he thinks that she is turned down by him.

New cards
10
New cards

What is a paraphilia?

Persistent sexual behavior patterns in which unusual objects or situations are required for sexual satisfaction. 1. Not a choice, 2. An addiction 3. Doesn't necessarily mean person must change

New cards
11
New cards

Fetishism

sexual attraction to inanimate objects or non-erotic body parts

New cards
12
New cards

Transvestism

Turned on by dressing up in the opposite gender clothing

New cards
13
New cards

Exhibitionism

compulsive need to expose one's body, particularly the genitals, to an unsuspecting stranger

New cards
14
New cards

Pedophilia

abnormal sexual desire in adults for children

New cards
15
New cards

Sadism

Turned on by inflicting pain onto someone else

New cards
16
New cards

Masochism

Turned on by receiving pain

New cards
17
New cards

Can classical conditioning theory explain paraphilia completely? Partially? At all?

It can explain why they develop these paraphilias but doesn't explain why there is little to no interest in sexual Intercourse, why addiction, and why worse after a blow to self-esteem

New cards
18
New cards

How does John Money, in his famous "Lovemap Theory", explain paraphilia?

  1. A person's sexual blueprint (preferred sexual scenario). Captures what is most erotically charged for person.

  2. Childhood indoctrination of later paraphile: love bs lust (taught sin is sinful and dirty)

  3. Paraphilia as "turning tragedy into triumph" tragedy us loss of possibility of loving sexual Intercourse. Triumph is "rescue of lust from total wreckage and obliteration and it's attachment to a reigned love map." Object choice determined by chance childhood encounters and/or personal attitudes toward self and/or others

  4. Paraphilic act and act of "defiant self-assertion" (refuse to renounce my sexuality, will preserve sexuality even if I have to attach it to something else

New cards
19
New cards

Bergner's Amendment to Money's theory of paraphilia

Child is degraded. Being degraded creates need for recovery. Paraphilic ritual = enactment of a preferred scenario that represents attempted recovery from degradation. Why are urges so powerful? (Normal sexual drive + need to recover from degradation = powerful "sexual cocktail.") however, rituals fail because in most cases it isn't real affirmation and recovery, or when person self-affirms, he or she simultaneously violated own anti-sexual beliefs, and degrades self...thus creating a need to repeat and setting up an addictive cycle.

New cards
20
New cards

What 4 criteria are used to determine the severity of an individual's substance use disorder?

  1. loss of control: unsuccessful efforts to cut down use

  2. Impairment in social and/or work functioning

  3. Tolerance effects: need more and more of substance to achieve desired effect

  4. Withdrawal reactions: hangover, sweating, confusion, anxiety

New cards
21
New cards

What general theory was advocated in lecture as to the nature of the inherited factor in alcoholism?

Nature of possible genetic factor: an individual difference in drug responsiveness. Possibly related to pleased derived from alcohol. Concordance rates: population baseline 13.2%. Fraternal twins: 38%. Identical twins: 54%

New cards
22
New cards

What effects of alcohol were mentioned in class that make it an attractive drug for most people, but in the bargain also make it attractive for some people to abuse?

Pleasure, tension/anxiety reduction, disinhibition, relieves withdrawal symptoms, removes "conditioned cravings", replaces depleted endorphins

New cards
23
New cards

What is the "endorphins compensation hypothesis?"

When we are depressed the endorphins are depleted. When this happens, they put something in their body (alcohol), this is replacing the depleted endorphins so they feel good again. "Self-medicating"

New cards
24
New cards

What was the primary theory of why Jonathan B drank?

History: as a child he was overprotected, treated as fragile and sickly, secluded from other children Resulting self concept: inadequate, incompetent (except music), not a man, helpless When he leaves parental home; high anxiety due to sense that "I'm way over my head; I can't handle independent living." Result: drinks to reduce anxiety

New cards
25
New cards

What, if any, role might Jonathan's wife have played in his drinking?

She is an enabler. She covers him, therefore he never has to face the consequences of his alcoholism.

New cards
26
New cards

What are the primary characteristics of narcissistic personality and disorder?

  1. Exaggerated sense of personal specialness, importance? And being set apart from and above others

  2. Sense of entitlement to special treatment

  3. Ignorance of and disregard for other's rights and feelings

  4. Extreme preoccupation with receiving affirmation from others

  5. Don't let others get too close; romantic relationships = love them and leave them

New cards
27
New cards

What is Freud's definition of the term "narcissism?"

The inability to cathect (be invested in) other except insofar as they gratify themself in some way. (Inability to care for someone except as far as they can give them.) 1. Narcissism the opposite of love, which in all its forms (romantic, parental, etc) has the essential feature that one is invested in the well-being of the other for other's own sake.

New cards
28
New cards

What is Kernberg's explanation for why the narcissist is so addicted to the attention, praise and admiration of other persons?

Because esteem is a need and a narcissist has low self-esteem

New cards
29
New cards

Kernberg's explanation for why narcissists are unable to love other persons?

Being so desperate to get needs for affirmation met by other precludes being invested in others for their own sake

New cards
30
New cards

Kernberg's explanation for the "love em and leave em" pattern characteristic of narcissists

Narcissist no longer interested in the other once "tribute has been exacted." They got what they wanted, why stick around. May also think "when they really get to know me, they'll learn the deeper truth and stop admiring me and reject me and I couldn't stand that.

New cards
31
New cards

What is antisocial personality disorder?

When an individual has impulsivity, lack of conscience, engages in inadequately socially motivated behaviors, emotional poverty

New cards
32
New cards

How does Shapiro in his "short circuit theory" explain why the impulsive psychopath behaves as he or she does?

When he or she gets an antisocial (ID) impulse, they lack the resistors (relationships, moral values) (ego and superego) to resist such an impulse.

New cards
33
New cards

How does Bergner's theory explain why the impulse psychopath behaves as s/he does?

Psychopaths not "short-circuiting" but given the world as they have found it and some see it, they have reasons to be anti-social, and lack reasons to restrain selves. If parts of their world are different they can be pro social and non-impulsive in these parts.

New cards
34
New cards

What are the 4 phases of human sexual response and which phases does sexual dysfunction affect?

Desire phase: the phase of the sexual response cycle consisting of an urge to have sex, sexual fantasies and sexual attraction Excitement phase: the phase of the sexual response cycle marked by changes in the pelvic region, general physical arousal, and increases in heart rate, muscle tension, blood pressure and rate of breathing Orgasm phase: the phase of the sexual response cycle during which a person's sexual pleasure peaks and sexual tension is released as muscles in the pelvic region contract rhythmically Resolution: consist simply of the relaxation and reduction in arousal that follow orgasm Sexual dysfunction can occur in the first three phases

New cards
35
New cards

Disorder of desire that affects men

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder: a male dysfunction marked by a persistent reduction or lack of interest in sex and hence a low level of sexual activity

New cards
36
New cards

female sexual interest/arousal disorder

a female dysfunction marked by a persistent reduction or lack of interest in sex and low sexual activity, as well as, in some cases, limited excitement and few sexual sensations during sexual activity

New cards
37
New cards

What hormones may affect sexual desire?

In men, abnormally low levels of testosterone or high levels of the hormones estrogen and prolactin. In women, low levels of estrogen.

New cards
38
New cards

What medication/drugs affect sexual desire? How do they affect it?

Certain pain medications, psychotropic drugs, as illegal drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, amphetamines and heroin. These drugs lower sex drive

New cards
39
New cards

What sociocultural factors can lead to desire and erectile disorder?

If wife provides too little physical stimulation for her aging husband, who, because of normal aging changes, now requires more intense, direct and lengthy physical stimulation of the penis in order to have an erection. Second a couple believes that only intercourse can give the wife an orgasm

New cards
40
New cards

What physiological response is caused by medications (e.g. Viagra) for erectile dysfunction?

Increases blood flow to the penis within one hour of ingestion; the increased blood flow enables the user to attain erection during sexual activity

New cards
41
New cards

What condition are therapists paying more attention to that is not listed in DSM-5?

Homosexuality

New cards
42
New cards

Voyeurism

paraphilia in which sexual arousal is derived from observing unsuspecting individuals undressing or naked

New cards
43
New cards

Frotteurism

Compulsion to achieve sexual arousal by touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person in public situations

New cards
44
New cards

Because definitions of paraphilias are heavily influenced by societal norms, what do some clinicians believe about how paraphilias should be viewed?

Some clinicians argue that except when people are hurt by them, many paraphiliac disorders should not be considered disorders at all. Especially in light of the self-revulsion people feel towards themselves when they believe they have such disorder, so we need to be careful about applying these labels to people

New cards
45
New cards

What are the behavioral treatments for fetishism?

Aversion therapy, covert sensitization, masturbatory satiation, Orgasmic reorientation

New cards
46
New cards

How prevalent is premature ejaculation?

As many as 30% of men struggle with it worldwide

New cards
47
New cards

What reaction to being transgender becomes a disorder?

Gender dysphoria

New cards
48
New cards

What are some explanations for the origins of gender dysphoria?

Biological explanations from birth and the fact that transgender individuals receive so much hate and persecution from society

New cards
49
New cards

What are some reasons for and against gender reassignment surgery as an option for transgender individuals?

For - people experience improvements in self-satisfaction and interpersonal interactions? And show improvements in sexual functioning Against - in the long term, some people experience gender dysphoria, higher rate of psychological disorders and suicide greater than the general population

New cards
50
New cards

What are the 4 categories into which the different substances that people misuse fall?

Depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, cannabis

New cards
51
New cards

What have statistics shown about the change in frequency of binge-drinking? Who is more likely to do it?

24% of people in the US over the age of 11 binge-drink each month. Men and college students are more likely to binge drink

New cards
52
New cards

What are the most widely used depressant substances?

Alcohol, sedative-hypnotic drugs, opioids

New cards
53
New cards

How does alcohol affect the neurotransmitter GABA?

It binds the receptors on certain neurons and helps GABA shut down the neurons, helping to relax the drinker

New cards
54
New cards

Why do women become more intoxicated than men on equal does of alcohol?

Women have less of the stomach enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, which breaks down alcohol in the stomach before it enters the blood

New cards
55
New cards

are rates of "sobering up" the same in all individuals

No because they vary because people's lovers work at different speeds to metabolize alcohol

New cards
56
New cards

What are the only things that can help a person sober up?

time and metabolism

New cards
57
New cards

According to the "Psych Watch" section, which students are more likely to binge drink?

College students who are athletes, lived in fraternities/sororities, pursues a party-centered lifestyle, and engaged in high risk behaviors such as substance misuse or having multiple sex partners

New cards
58
New cards

What ethnic group tends to display the highest rates of alcohol abuse and dependence?

Native Americans

New cards
59
New cards

What do MRI scans reveal about the brains of chronic drinkers?

Damage to brain

New cards
60
New cards

Define "tolerance" as this term is used in connection with substance abuse

The adjustment that the brain and the body make to the regular use of certain drugs so that even larger doses are needed to achieve earlier effects - falls under substance term-54dependence (addiction)

New cards
61
New cards

What are the withdrawal symptoms? (AKA a hangover)

After heavy drinking, a person experiences tiredness, moodiness, fever, shakes, insomnia, hallucinations, anger, cravings, irritability, crawling skin

New cards
62
New cards

What is cirrhosis?

a chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue. It is typically a result of alcoholism or hepatitis. Alcohol overworks the liver, causing the scarring.

New cards
63
New cards

What are the nutritional problems that excessive drinking may cause?

Alcohol makes you feel full and lowers desire to eat, can become malnourished, weak and prone to disease

New cards
64
New cards

What are problems associated with fetal alcohol syndrome?

Mental retardation, hyperactivity, Deformities, heart defects and slow growth

New cards
65
New cards

According to sociocultural view, what factors make people more likely to develop patterns of substance abuse or dependence?

When people live under stressful socioeconomic conditions. Higher rates of alcoholism are seen in regions with higher unemployment, lower socioeconomic classes, and in families where substance use is accepted or valued

New cards
66
New cards

According to behaviorists, what process plays a key role in substance abuse disorders?

operant conditioning

New cards
67
New cards

What is involved in psychodynamic therapy for substance abuse? Has it been found to be effective?

First guide to uncover and work through the underlying needs and conflicts that they believe lead to the disorder. Then they try to help change their substance-related styles of living. Not found to be effective. It is more helpful when combined with another approach

New cards
68
New cards

How does aversion therapy work to combat drug addiction?

When people take a drug and drink alcohol, they will have nausea, vomiting, blushing, faster heart rate, dizziness, and fainting. The unpleasant experience with nausea should pair alcohol with the unpleasant experience

New cards
69
New cards

What is involved in relapse prevention training?

A cognitive-behavioral approach to treating alcohol abuse and dependence in which clients are taught to keep track of their drinking behavior, apply coping strategies in situations that typically trigger excessive drinking and plan ahead for risky situations situations and reactions

New cards
70
New cards

How do self-help treatment programs (e.g., Alcoholics Anonymous) offer support to people with alcoholism?

It offers peer support along with moral and spiritual guidelines to help people overcome alcoholism

New cards
71
New cards

What does research indicate about teaching controlled drinking versus complete abstinence in the treatment of alcoholism?

-both May be useful treatment goals, depending on the nature of the particular drinking problem. -abstinence may be more appropriate for those who have a long-standing dependence on alcohol -controlled drinking can be helpful to young drinkers who's pattern does not include physical dependence

New cards
72
New cards

paranoid personality disorder

"People with paranoid personality disorder deeply distrust other people and are suspicious of others' motives."

New cards
73
New cards

schizoid personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by persistent avoidance of social relationships and little expression of emotion

New cards
74
New cards

borderline personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures

New cards
75
New cards

histrionic personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior

New cards
76
New cards

obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and contro

New cards
77
New cards

What adolescent behaviors are usually linked with persons later developing antisocial personality disorder?

People who lie, violate rules & other people's rights (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, lack of foresight and judgment and fail to learn from experience)

New cards
78
New cards

What childhood disorders often lead to the development of antisocial personality disorder?

Children with conduct disorder and an accompanying attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder may have a high risk of developing antisocial personality disorder

New cards
79
New cards

What are some explanations regarding why people with antisocial personality disorder are more prone to substance abuse?

a deep seeded need to take risk

New cards
80
New cards

What neurotransmitter abnormality May be a causal factor in antisocial personality disorder?

Low serotonin

New cards
81
New cards

Why are treatments for antisocial personality disorder ineffective?

Individuals lack of conscience, desire to change, or respect for therapy

New cards
82
New cards

What are some common occurrences in the childhoods of people with borderline personality disorder?

Neglected or rejected by their parents, verbally abused them, physical and/or sexual abuse behaved inappropriately. Many parent substitutes (divorce, death)

New cards
83
New cards

What is involved in the bio social theory of borderline personality disorder?

Disorder results from a combo of internal forces (difficulty identifying and controlling one's emotions, social deficits, abnormal neurotransmitter reactions) and external forces (environment in which a child's emotions are punished ignored, trivialized or disregarded)

New cards
84
New cards

People with which personality disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own?

Histrionic

New cards
85
New cards

Why are persons with narcissistic personality disorder difficult to treat?

Clients are unable to acknowledge weakness, to appreciate the effort of their behavior on others, or incorporate feedback from others

New cards
86
New cards

What is a key task in therapy for people with dependent personality disorder?

to change the patient's self-concept to one that seeks greater independence and accepts responsibility for their own choices.

New cards
87
New cards

What kind of research is being neglected in the area of personality disorders?

the lack of multicultural research.

New cards
88
New cards

What is the "Big Five"?

extraversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism.

New cards
89
New cards

How can the "Big Five" be used as an alternative to the categorical approach to diagnosing personality disorders?

by describing all people with personality disorders as being high, low, or in between on the five super traits.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 38 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 75 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1591 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(14)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard75 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 99 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard47 terms
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard66 terms
studied byStudied by 208 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)