Global Studies Semester Quiz Flashcards

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absolutism

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60 Terms

1

absolutism

idea of government having absolute power

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2

Divine Right

the right of rule derives directly from God, not from the consent of the people.

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3

Thomas Hobbes

English philosopher that created the idea of a social contract.

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4

Social Contract

Government provides protection to people but they have to give up some rights.

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5

Scientific Revolution

period in which scholars questioned old beliefs and based new thinking on careful observation

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6

the Enlightenment

philosophical movement that questioned society and human actions

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7

John Locke

Argued for the right to life, liberty, and property

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8

American Revolution

Wars America fought against Britain to fully gain independence from them.

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9

Salutary Neglect

British relaxed their enforcement of regulations and trade laws on the American colonists

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10

Articles of Confederation

the United States’ first constitution

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11

U.S. Constitution

New constitution that established a federal government with more power and authority over the states

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12

French Revolution

a period of radical political and societal change in France that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended with the formation of the National Assembly in November 1799.

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13

Estates-General

an assembly of representatives from the three estates

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14

National Assembly

an assembly that represented all people instead of three estates

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15

Haitian Revolution

enslaved Haitians began to rebel against the French,

French forces retreated and Haiti gained its independence

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16

Industrial Revolution

he shift from a farming-based society to a manufacturing-based society during the late 1700s

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17

factors of production

Land, Labor, Capital

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18

laissez-faire economics

limited government involvement in the economy

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19

Adam Smith

Wrote “The Wealth of Nations” and argued for a free market economy

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20

capitalism

private ownership of industry and minimal government involvement

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21

Social Darwinism

free competition in the economy ensures economic success

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22

monopolies

Businesses that have complete control over an industry

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23

urbanization

process through which cities grow and higher percentages of the population live in citie

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24

tenements

overcrowded and unsanitary apartment buildings

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25

labor unions

an organization formed by workers in order to negotiate for better workers' rights.

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26

Labor Movement

movement that led to advancements for workers and workers’ rights

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27

Progressive Movement

reform movement in the early 1900s that sought to improve problems in American society

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28

muckrakers

(journalists) worked to showcase corruption and problems in American society

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29

Karl Marx

author of the Communist Manifesto

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30

communism

public ownership of industry and communal ownership of the means of production

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31

American Civil War

civil war taking place in the United States between 1861-1865

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32

abolition / abolitionists

called for an end to slavery

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33

Fugitive Slave Act

Declared that all enslaved people must be returned to their owners

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34

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Novel that exposed the harsh reality of slavery

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35

Bleeding Kansas

Violence in Kansas between pro/anti-slavery sides

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36

Election of 1860

Abe Lincoln was elected

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37

Battle of Gettysburg

Key turning point for Union in war.

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38

Battle of Appomattox Court House

Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered here

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39

The Emancipation Proclamation

Executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln Declared that all enslaved people in the rebelling states were emancipated

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40

Reconstruction

Period after the American Civil War in which the nation was reunited and rebuilt

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41

Manifest Destiny

Belief that Americans have a God-given duty to expand westward

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42

Transcontinental Railroad

Connected eastern and western United States

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43

Trail of Tears

Forced displacement of Native Americans by the American government

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44

Ellis Island

Largest immigration station in the US

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45

nativism

Demanded that restrictions be placed on immigration

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46

imperialism

policy in which stronger nations extend their control over weaker territories

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47

White Man’s Burden

the alleged duty of white colonizers to care for nonwhite Indigenous subjects in their colonial possessions.

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48

The Opium Wars

  • Conflicts between China and European powers in the 1800s

  • Allowed for European imperialism of China

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49

The Belgian Congo

The establishment of the Belgian Congo alarmed other European countries, who also desired this resource-rich land. Lead to scramble for africa.

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50

Henry Morton Stanley

led expeditions into the Congo. Stanley’s expeditions increased European intrigue in Africa.

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51

King Leopold II

King Leopold commissioned explorer Henry Morton Stanley to help King Leopold obtain land in the Congo

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52

Belgian Congo colony

This colony was over 80 times larger than Belgium, and it was under King Leopold’s control

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53

Scramble for Africa

Competition of European countries for land in Africa.

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54

The Berlin Conference

European nations met in Berlin in 1884 to prevent conflict over African lands.

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55

isolationism

avoid foreign conflicts

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56

yellow journalism

Reporting that exaggerates the news.

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57

The Spanish-American War

Unfair war, because of industrialization the US destroyed the spanish.

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58

nationalism

loyalty and devotion to a nation

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59

realpolitik

Approach in government that emphasizes being realistic and getting things done

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60

Otto von Bismarck

became leader of Prussia and Sought to unify Germany under Prussia

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