History Topic Five Vocab

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Muckrakers

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Muckrakers

Journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life in mass circulation magazines during the early 20th century.

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Initiative

A procedure by which a legislative measure can be originated by the people rather than by lawmakers.

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Referendum

A procedure by which a proposed legislative member can be submitted to a vote of the people.

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Recall

A procedure for removing a public official from office by a vote of the people

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Ammendments

a minor change or addition designed to improve a text, piece of legislation, etc.

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14th Ammendment

An amendment to the U.S. constitution, adopted in 1868, that makes all persons born or naturalized in the United States--including former slaves--citizens of the country and guarantees equal protection of the laws.

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15th

Adopted in 1870, prohibits the denial of voting rights to people because of their race or color or because they have previously been slaves.

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16th

1913, Permits a federal income tax and states that the congress has the power to levy an income tax without apportioning such a tax among the states according to their populations.

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17th

Adopted in 1913, that provides for the election of U.S. senators by the people rather than by state legislatures.

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18th

1919, Prohibition, intoxicating liquors for beverage purposes is prohibited.

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19th

1920, Women’s suffrage, the right of the American citizens to vote shall not be denied or abridged based on sex.

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21st

Repealing the 18th amendment. Repealing prohibition, 1933, intoxicating liquors not prohibited.

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Council City Manager

The people elect a council to make laws. The council, in turn, appoints a manager, typically a person with training and experience in public administration, to run the city's departments. Local form of government.

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Commission Idea

The idea that a commission could be used to help establish and govern a law. “Watchdogs” can be used to help guarantee the law.

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Poll Tax

an annual tax that formerly had to be paid in some southern states by anyone wishing to vote.

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Grandfather Clause

A provision that exempts certain people from a law on the basis of previously existing circumstances--especially a clause formerly in some southern states’ constitutions that exempted whites from the strict voting requirements used to keep African Americans from the polls.

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Segregation

The separation of people on the basis of race.

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Discrimination

The unjust or prejudicial treatment of people paced on race, sex, and many other things.

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De Facto Segregation

Racial Separation established by practice and custom, not by law.

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De Jure Segregation

Racial separation established by law.

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Jim Crow Laws

Laws enacted in southern state and local governments to separate white and black people in public and private facilities

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Debt Peonage

A system in which workers are bound in servitude until their debts are paid.

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Racial Etiquette

strict rules of behavior that governed the social and business relations between whites and African American

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Literacy Test

Used to keep people of color -- and, sometimes, poor whites -- from voting, and they were administered at the discretion of the officials in charge of voter registration. assesses a person's literacy skills: their ability to read and write

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