Science Final

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What is a mineral?

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53 Terms
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What is a mineral?

naturally, occuring, inorganic crystalline material with a unique chemical composition

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What are the tests of a mineral properties?

Streak, color, luster, crystal shape/habit, mineral strength, cleavage, fracture, density,

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luster

quality of light reflected from the surface of a mineral

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streak

color of mineral in powdered form

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habit

shape of crystal

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hardness

the property of being rigid and resistant to pressure; not easily scratched; measured on Mohs scale

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cleavage

the state of being split or cleft

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fracture

any break or rupture in rock along which no appreciable movement

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density

the amount per unit size

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silicate minerals

four oxygen ions

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feldspar

any of a group of hard crystalline minerals that consist of aluminum silicates of potassium or sodium or calcium or barium

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what is quartz?

common silicate mineral

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dark silicate minerals

contain ions of iron and magnesium/dark

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what is confining pressure

pressure applied equally on all surfaces

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what is differential stress

difference between the greatest and least compressive stress

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difference between confining pressure and differential stress

conf.-forces in different directions/diff.-forces applied equally

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divergent plate boundaries?

plates move apart

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convergent plate boundary

two plates move together

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oceanic convergence

when two oceanic slabs converge, one descends beneath the other, volcanic activity

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volcanic island arc

arc shaped chain of volcanic islands

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continental convergence

one landmass moves toward the other bc of subduction of seafloor

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continental drift

the gradual movement and formation of continents

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plate tectonic theory

earth's outer shell consists of individual plates that interact in various ways and thereby create formations

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elastic rebound theory

accumulation and release of stress and strain, causing a shake due to elasticity

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what are the types of lava

basaltic, rhyolitic, aa, pahoehoe, pillow

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basaltic lava

made from mafic/fluid, very fast

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rhylotitic lava

felsic/slow

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aa flow

rough jagged lava chunks

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pahoehoe

freely flowing lava

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how does pahoehoe turn into aa?

gas bubbles in the lava pop and turn into spikes, molten interior advances and outer crust is broken

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pyroclastic flow

chaotic mix of rock, gas, and ash

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dip slip faults

primarily parallel to the slope

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normal fault

an inclined fault in which the hanging wall appears to have slipped downward relative to the footwall

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reverse faults

dip slip faults in which the hanging block moves up relative to the footwall block

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thrust fault

a geological fault in which the upper side appears to have been pushed upward by compression

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strike slip fault

dominant displacement is horizontal and parallel to the trend of the fault surface

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epicenter

the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake

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foreshock

a tremor preceding an earthquake

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aftershock

a tremor occurring after the main shock of an earthquake

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karst topography

a landscape with numerous caves and sinkholes and underground steams

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water table

underground surface below which the ground is wholly saturated with water

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porosity

the property of being porous; being able to absorb fluids

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aquitard

semipervious nature that transmits water slower than an aquitard

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aquifer

underground bed or layer yielding ground water for wells and springs etc

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stalactite

a cylinder of calcium carbonate hanging from the roof of a limestone cave

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stalagmite

a cylinder of calcium carbonate projecting upward from the floor of a limestone cave

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spring

occurs when water pressure causes a natural flow of groundwater onto the earth's surface

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shield volcano

shape of a broad, slightly domed structure that ressembles a warrior's shield

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cinder cones

ejected lava fragments that begin to harden in flight to produce scoria, rock.

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composite volcanoes

pitersque, yet dangerous. composed of both lava flows and pyroclastic material

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composite volcano shape

conical shape

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cinder cone shape

steep sided, deep craters

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cinder cone eruption

short lived, magma plumbs connecting vent to magma source solidifying

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