MedTerm.Ch.7--Lymphatic&ImmuneSys

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acquired immunity

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acquired immunity

obtained by having had a contagious disease.

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acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

commonly known as AIDS, is the most advanced and fatal stage of an HIV infection.

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allergen

a substance that produces an allergic reaction in an individual.

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allergist

specializes in diagnosing and treating conditions of altered immunologic reactivity, such as allergic reactions.

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allergy

(hypersensitivity), is an over-reaction by the body to a particular antigen.

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anaphylaxis

(anaphylactic shock), is a severe response to an allergen.

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antibiotic-resistant bacteria

occur when antibiotics fail to kill all of the bacteria they target.

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antibiotics

medications capable of inhibiting growth or killing pathogenic bacterial microorganisms.

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antibody

a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen.

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antifungal

an agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi.

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antigen

any substance that the body regards as being foreign.

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antigen-antibody reaction

also known as the immune reaction, involves binding antigens to antibodies.

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autoimmune disorder

any of a large group of diseases characterized by a condition where the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues, mistaking healthy cells, tissues, or organs for antigens.

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bacilli

rod-shaped, spore-forming bacteria. (The singular is bacillus).

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bacteria

one-celled microscopic organisms (singular, bacterium).

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candidiasis

(yeast infection), occur on the skin or mucous membranes in warm, moist areas and are caused by the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

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complement system

a group of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form.

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COVID-19

a highly contagious viral infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

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cytokines

a group of proteins such as interferons and interleukins released primarily by the T cells.

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cytomegalovirus

(CMV) is found in most body fluids.

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hemolytic

destroying worn-out erythrocytes (red blood cells) and releasing their hemoglobin for reuse.

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herpes zoster

(HZ)(shingles), an acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of an inflamed nerve.

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human immunodeficiency virus

(HIV), a bloodborne infection in which the virus damages or kills the T cells of the immune system, causing it to progressively fail, thus leaving the body at risk of developing many life-threatening opportunistic infections.

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immunodeficiency disorder

occurs when the immune response is compromised.

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immunoglobulins

help the body attack and kill germs. bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response.

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immunologist

specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the immune system.

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immunosuppressant

a substance that prevents or reduces the body’s normal immune response.

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immunotherapy

a disease treatment that involves either stimulating or repressing the immune response. boosts the ability of the immune system to recognize and fight cancer.

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infectious disease specialist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases caused by microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites.

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infectious monoucleosis

(mono), caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, and is most common in adolescents and young adults.

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influenza

commonly known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral respiratory infection that usually occurs in seasonal epidemics.

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interferons

(IFNs) are produced in response to the presence of antigens, particularly viruses or tumor cells.

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Lyme disease

transmitted by the bite of a tick that has had contact with a deer infected with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi.

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lymphadenopathy

any disease process affecting a lymph node or nodes.

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lymphangioma

a benign tumor formed by an abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels due to a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system.

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lymphedema

(LE) is swelling of the tissues due to an abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid within the tissues.

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lymphocytes

(lymphoid cells), are leukocytes formed in bone marrow that identify foreign substances and germs in the body and produce antibodies that specifically target them.

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lymphologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the lymphatic system.

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lymphoscintigraphy

a diagnostic test that is performed to detect damage or malformations of the lymphatic vessels.

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macrophage

a type of leukocyte that surrounds and kills invading cells.

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malaria

caused by a parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes and is transferred to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito.

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measles

an acute, highly contagious infection that is transmitted by respiratory droplets of the rubeola virus.

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natural immunity

(passive immunity), resistance to a disease present without the administration of an antigen or exposure to a disease.

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opportunistic infection

caused by a pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in healthy humans.

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parasite

a plant or animal that lives on or within another living organism at the expense of that organism.

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pathogen

a microorganism that causes a disease in humans.

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rabies

an acute viral infection that is transmitted to humans through the bite or saliva of an infected animal.

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rickettsia

a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites (plural, rickettsiae).

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rubella

(German measles), a viral infection characterized by a low-grade fever, swollen glands, inflamed eyes, and a fine, pink rash.

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spirochetes

long, slender, spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement.

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splenomegaly

an abnormal enlargement of the spleen.

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staphylocci

a group of about 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes.

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streptococci

bacteria that form a chain. (The singular is streptococcus).

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synthetic immunoglobulins

(immune serum), are used as a post-exposure preventive measure against certain viruses, including rabies and some types of hepatitis.

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synthetic interferon

used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, hepatitis C, and some cancers.

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systemic reaction

also known as (anaphylaxis/ anaphylactic shock), is a severe response to an allergen.

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toxoplasmosis

a disease caused by a parasite that is most commonly transmitted from pets to humans by contact with contaminated feces.

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varicella

(chickenpox), is caused by the herpesvirus Varicella zoster and is highly contagious.

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West Nile virus

spread to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito.

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Zika virus

spread by the bite of an infected mosquito

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