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Peter Abelard

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Western Civ

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1

Peter Abelard

brilliant guy at the University of Paris, wanted everyone to know he was the smartest. He was a “very hands-on tutor” Heloise is pregnant, he gets castrated by her mad uncle and becomes a monk, and she becomes a nun. He writes Sic et Non, and The Story of my Calamities. He questions the Bible and the church fathers because he wants to pull a Socrates. He gets in trouble with the church fathers because he wants common people to read the Bible.

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2

Thomas Aquinas

Wrote Summa Theologica, Summa Contra Gentiles. Summary of what Christians believe, Summary against non-Christian believes

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3

Pope Gregory VII

Only cardinals now elect the pope and started the crisis with the lay investiture called the Investiture Controversy, trying to fix it. 

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4

William the Conqueror

Norman who conquered England at the Battle of Hastings. He claimed he was called heir by Edward but there was no witness. He goes and conquers England. when the Angles, Saxons, and Normans combine we get the English.

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5

Roger de Hautville

Norman conqueror who took over Sicily and became king of Sicily.

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6

Peter the Hermit

 starts the peasants' crusade. He said we got a vision we need to go to Jerusalem. On their trip, they get to Hungary and are hungry and kill some Christians and jews to get some food and raid them. They die fighting the Turks, which is the greatest for the First Crusade because the people think that is all the Crusaders had were some peasants, so they underestimated them

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7

Godfrey of Bouillon

Protector of the Holy Sepulchre

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8

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Married to Louis VII then leaves him for Henry II. Helps give Henry a third of France which makes their descendants very powerful. And she is one of the most powerful women cause she was married to two kings, had multiple kids, so advised multiple kings. 

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9

Henry II of England

Son of Matilda, rules a good bit of France. Trial by jury, common law made by him. Henry thinks Thomas Becket will do what he says. 

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10

Thomas Becket

Archbishop of Canterbury, he finds Jesus and won’t help Henry. Henry says, “Will no one rid me of this troublesome priest” 4 of his knights kill Becket while he’s preaching. Henry will never take control of the church, and now has to publicly flog himself as punishment.

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11

Frederick Barbarossa

HRE, brings back Corpus Juris Civilis. Red beard. Went to war with Italy and made a compromise. They give tribute and he lets them rule themselves. Died on the way to the Third Crusade, probably taking a bath. He was old, in his eighties.

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12

Saladin

unite Muslims together and retake Jerusalem, inspiring the third Crusade.

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13

Richard I of England

Went on the Third Crusade (Crusade of Kings) He is the only King who fought during the whole crusade. He made a treaty with Saladin against the will of the pope.  He got Christians access to Jerusalem, but it stayed under Saladin’s control

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14

Innocent III

Most powerful pope, excommunication interdict, excommunicate whole kingdom telling them all to go to hell

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15

John of England

Forced to sign the Magna Carta, after losing wars in france and levying taxes on nobles.

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16

Frederick II

Holy Roman Emperor- closest medieval ruler to the unification of Germany. He stupidly invaded italy and got killed  

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17

Phillip II

Augustus-unifier of France, also the first guy to call himself king of France. 3rd crusade, left because he said he had dysentery, but prolly not because he proceeded to invade richard’s lands/territories

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18

Louis IX the Saint

added more land to france, created new royal judicial system, parleament

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19

Mansa Musa

first moleinese leader to adopt Islam, Donated so much gold that he broke Egypts economy

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20

Chinggis / Genghis Khan (Temujin)

first to unify the mongols and build their empire. title means great king. Dies mysteriously in China and is buried somewhere secretly. 

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21

Ogedei Khan

great warrior and greatest drinker of the people. Finishes his dad’s work and takes over china and takes over russia, but then dies of alcohol poisoning, thereby saving the rest of Europe from being taken over by the Mongols

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22

Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta

mapped asia and africa, increasing interest in traveling and trade, Marco was merchant, Battuta was a lawyer

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23

Hulegu

founder of the ilkhanate empire, a branch from the mongol empire

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24

Kublai Khan

yuan dynasty in china, everyone who is not Chinese can have a government job, tried to invade japan but japan was saved by the great wind called Kamikaze

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25

Edward I Longshanks

inventor of parliament, conquered whales and tried to conquer scotland but failed

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26

William Wallace

hanged drawn and quartered by Edward I Longshanks for a Scottish rebellion.

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27

Robert the Bruce

successful rebellion against England, becomes Robert I King of Scotland

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28

Phillip IV “The Fair”

believes in the divine right of kings, he answers to no one, fights with pope (gets him kidnapped and beat up, and later he dies from something heart related), england, jews kicked out and the knights templar leader got killed 

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29

Edward III of England

his mom invaded and got rid of his dad, his mom makes him king of england but she was the one who really rules, then he kicks her out. First english leader to claim to be king of france The first 30 years of the hundred years war is the Edwardian

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30

John Wycliffe

said that church shouldn’t claim wealth, and he questioned transubstantiation, argued that people should real the bible themselves

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31

Jan Huss

All of Wycliffe’s stuff is true, and transubstantiation is completely symbolic and doesn’t happen like they think. Burned as execution and sang while he was being burned for heresy.

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32

Charles VI The Mad

French king that was great until he went crazy for no reason on a hunting trip. Killed like 5 of his knights, thought he was a dragon slayer, thought he was made of glass so he wouldn’t let anyone touch him and didn’t bathe for weeks, ran through the garden naked so much they blocked it off so visitors wouldn’t see it, couldn’t remember his name or his wife’s name. It would happen every now and then. Fine for some weeks then suddenly crazy and doesn’t remember it after. 

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33

Joan of Arc

claimed to hear voices from saints and an angel who were messengers from God telling her, a teenage girl, to go fight and make Charles VII King. At the battle of Orleans, she continues fighting with an arrow in her leg. This motivates the troops and they win. Sometime later the Burgundians capture her and give her to the English and then to the pope. She is burned for heresy. 23 years later they say oops sorry, but now you can be a saint.

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34

Tamerlane

claimed to be descendent of Genghis Khan. Built himself a new mongol empire that was big and cool, but when he died his kids fought over it and it just collapsed. 

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35

Sultan Mehmed II

largest cannons created and took over constantinople leading Rome, at least the other half get destroyed forever. 

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36

Dante Alighieri

 wrote Divine Comedy: Inferno, Purgatory, Paradisio; an interpretation written in the slang of Florence which helped create the Italian language and started off the Renaissance

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37

Petrarch

Father of Humanism

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38

Geoffrey Chaucer

wrote Canterbury Tales which helped transition from old English to Middle English

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39

Christine de Pizan

helped invent the French language. Best work is the book of the City of Ladies. Had argument about women. Arguing with Bocaccio “Querelle des Femmes” (Quarrel over Women)

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40

Erasmus

Philosophy of Christ and Education is the means to reform 

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41

Giotto

Father of Renaissance Paintings

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42

Donatello

the first great master of Renaissance sculpture. The purple ninja turtle that created things. 

<p><span>the first great master of Renaissance sculpture. The purple ninja turtle that created things.&nbsp;</span></p>
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43

Leonardo da Vinci

 Renaissance man. the universal competence. Man who can do anything. That's why he leads as the turtle.

<p><span>&nbsp;Renaissance man. the universal competence. Man who can do anything. That's why he leads as the turtle.</span></p>
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44

Raphael

most beloved artist. he quintessential Renaissance painting “The School of Athens”. Liked emotion in his paintings. He was the one who showed the most emotion as a turtle

<p><span>most beloved artist. he quintessential Renaissance painting “The School of Athens”. Liked emotion in his paintings. He was the one who showed the most emotion as a turtle</span></p>
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45

Michelangelo

Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, statue of David, At the end of the Renaissance, one of the last Italians. The youngest, like the orange turtle. 


<p><span>Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, statue of David, At the end of the Renaissance, one of the last Italians. The youngest, like the orange turtle.&nbsp;</span></p><p><br></p>
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46

The Three Field System

1st field- wheat and rye; 2nd field- oats, barley, legumes, lentils; 3rd field- fallow. Rotate the fields after

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47

Town / City

the town has a church, the city has a cathedral

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48

Borough / Burg

city with a wall

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49

Burghers / Bourgeoisie

originally merchants who lived in a city with a wall

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50

Guilds & Rank

All people who do/create a certain thing.  Apprentice, working 5-7 years no pay, Journeyman, get paid, To become a master you must make a “masterpiece”

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51

Romances & Romance Languages

Romance Languages are languages stemming from Latin. A Romance is a story written in a romance language.

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52

Well-field system

Chinese. Peasant dies, and the government redistributes and controls the tax on the land so the nobles don't put higher taxes on the land. 

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53

Shogun / Shogunate

 a military leader in Japan and Shogunate is when they have the power and control the country/empire.

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54

Tale of the Genji

Possibly the world's first novel and definitely the first by a woman, the evolution of the Japanese language

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55

Angkor Wat

 the world’s largest temple that was lost for 700 years. Found after one of the world wars

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56

Lay Investiture

when a layman appoints a clergyman usually a bishop

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57

Domesday Book

 Detailed census of England and Wales under William the Conqueror

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58

Knights Hospitaller

White Cross, first of the crusading knights order

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59

Knights Templar

poverty, chastity, obedience. their symbol is the red cross. and although they are supposed to follow poverty they gather a great amount of wealth

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60

Teutonic Knights

Black cross, German knights fighting in Poland instead of holy lands 

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61

Albigensians

Believe the God of the Old and New Testaments are different. Old is bad and physical, New is Good and Spiritual, Must live a simple life, men and women are equal, and reincarnation will continue until you live a sinless life.

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62

Waldensians

christian group that helped out sick and needy and wanted to translate the bible into local languages which the church doesn’t like and doesn’t quite crusade against them but does go against them. 

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63

Inquisition

 investigators, seeing if Christians are believing the correct thing or being heretics. Goes bad when kingdoms say hey there are a lot of heretics here, let's kill them and take their stuff. 

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64

Dominicans

a religious order that focused on education. Founded by Saint Dominic.

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65

Franciscans

follow Saint Francis of Assisi; helped the sick and needy

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66

Khuraltai

The Mongol Council of Elders who chose their king

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67

fire lance

arrow shotgun gunpowder on a stick go boom

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68

Golden Horde

Russia

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69

The Il-Khanate

Persia

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70

Yuan Dynasty

China

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71

Flagellants

people who whip themselves for the sins of mankind, and went against Jews.

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72

Pogroms

ethnic group of mostly jews

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73

Renaissance

any time there is a rebirth of Greek or Roman culture.

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74

Patronage / Patron

the rich paying the renaissance people to do paintings, teach, write whatever

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75

Utopia

a book written by Thomas Moore. The word originally meant nowhere, the book changed its meaning to a perfect place.

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76

Movable Type

 version of the printing press where you move around the letters so you don’t have to come up with a block for each page. invented by Johan Gutenburg

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77

Linear Perspective

illusion of depth in art

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78

Seventeen Point Constitution

founding document of Japan

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79

East-West Schism / First Great Schism

Heads of each church kick each other out of the church, now have Orthodox and Catholic

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80

Investiture Controversy

emporer henry 4 and pope gregory fighting over lay investiture, pope uses excommunication and henry invades rome. Concordant of Worms

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81

Battle of Hastings

William the Conqueror vs Harold Godwinson leading to william being in control of england. 

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82

The Anarchy

civil war between matilda and steven over who gets the throne. looks like steven is going to win but he has no sons so they make agreement that matilda’s son will be his heir, who’s name is Henry II. 

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83

“Crusade of Kings”

Third Crusade. Saladin unifies the Muslims and takes over jerusalem. Richard, Phillip II Augustus, and Barbarosa are the kings. Barbarosa dies taking a bath, Philip allegedly has dysentery and goes back home magically gets better so he can invade Richard’s territory. Richard compromises with Saladin to get Christians access to the city but the Muslims get to keep it.

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84

The Fourth Crusade

 Innocent III attack zara and constantinople. It is the biggest disaster of all of the crusades, because they are going after their own people. 

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85

The Children’s Crusade

Nicholas of Cologne had visions of children taking over the holy land. Kids got kidnapped and sold into slavery according to legend. They probably weren't actually children and didn't actually get kidnapped. 

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86

Reconquista

Spanish Christians reconquering territory from spanish Muslims

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87

The Battle of Bouvines

Battle in the cowfield. Otto and John vs Phillip II. England vs. France. France wins. Caused them to be powerful and changed history.

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88

Magna Carta

 one of the single most important documents but doesn’t do quite much. Limits king to how he can tax the people. King is not above the law, first steps to Parliament.

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89

The Kamikaze

the great wind that caused a typhoon to take out the mongols as they were invading japan

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90

Unam Sanctum

all christians are subject to the will of the pope, even kings, which angers Philip

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91

The Avignon Papacy

Period of time in which the papacy was stationed in France, marked by corruption, basically puppets of the French Kings.

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92

Little Ice Age

period of low temperatures for several centuries, initially caused a famine because of too much rain.

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93

The Black Death

Bubonic plague, greatest outbreak in 1348. ⅓ of europe’s population die of it. Mongols bring it to black sea, where people bring it on ship to italy which spreads it everywhere.

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94

Battle of Crecy

This battle invented Cannons and longbows, part of the Hundred Year’s War.

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95

The Parliamentary Statute of 1341

king gave parliament control of all taxing

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96

Golden Bull

sets the countries who decide who is the holy roman emperor. 7 countries, 8 later on, that decide who is HRE

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97

Peasant’s Revolt of 1381

revolt in england, peasants are mad about taxes. Britain had to many of them, they marched on city of london, raided a prison cafeteria, and King Richard the II is willing to give in to their demands, until the leader of the peasants somehow unintentionally/intentionally offend the king in some way leading to the knights to kill him and the rest of the peasants. 

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98

Ciompi Revolt

 Florence is hit hard by the plague so the wool business goes down and they are put down by the Medici.

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99

The Western Schism / Great Schism / Second Great Schism

pope moved back to rome and died. New pope wanted reforms that made people mad, so the cardinals decide to get rid of the guy and pick a new one. Multiple excommunications. End up having 3 different popes. Tried to get council, the Council of Constance, to get rid of the roman pope and other pope, ignore the other pope like he didn’t exist, and elect the turtle looking pope Martin V.

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100

Council of Constance

convinces two popes to step down and we ignore the third one. They then elect a new pope, Martin V, who looks like a turtle

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