Psychology Unit 2

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Ethical Issues in Psychology


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38 Terms

Ethical Issues in Psychology

Protection from harm, right to withdraw, confidentiality, informed consent, debriefing, deception

Overconfidence bias

the tendency to be very sure of a fact and later finding that the objective reality was different

Hindsight bias

tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

First Step to the Scientific method


Second step to the scientific method


Third step to the scientific method

Testing your hypothesis

Fourth step to the scientific method

Analyze the results

Fifth step to the scientific method

Draw a conclusion

Sixth step to the scientific method

Repeat the test


samples large group via questions

Case Study

in-depth study of a single participant

Naturalistic Observation

observing and recording behavior of participant in its natural state without interfering


scientific procedure to test a hypothesis, involves manipulating variables (IV, DV, etc) to determine cause and effect


total group of individuals from which the selected group (sample) is taken


the participants, group taking part in the study

Random Sample

to be most unbiased, selection of participants should be “random” - chosen by flipping a coin, pulling names, etc.

Representative Sample

the participants used should represent the population being studied

Independent Variable

what is being manipulated? What is impacting results?

Dependent Variable

these are the results; what are psychologists measuring? (depends on the changes in independent variables); results DEPEND on changing independent

Confounding Variable

what could some other factors be that are not controlled or measured? (weather, time of day, etc)

Experimental Group

group receiving the “treatment” or changes

Control Group

group that doesn’t receive anything - left alone


what number occurs the most?


what is the number in the middle?


what is the average?


difference between low and high?

Cross-sectional study

different groups at one time

Longitudinal Study

following one person over an extended period


does it measure what it is supposed to measure?


does it have consistent results? If it is replicated, would it have the same results?

Scientific Attitude

curious eagerness, skeptically scrutinize competing ideas, open-minded humility before nature

Critical Thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

Operational Definition

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables


repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances


connection between 2+ things (the longer you exercise, the more calories you burn) However, does not always = causation; ex: more likely to die in hospital


pill/medicine or procedure that has no real effects

Single-blind experiment

the researcher knows who has received the placebo, but the participant does not

Double-blind experiment

neither the researcher nor the participant know who has the placebo