US History Chapt. 4

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late 1880s

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late 1880s

a time of invention + advances in technology. these things, along with railroad expansion + new business practices launced an age of industry

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unions

  • it was run by workers due to poor pay + working conditions

  • they did this in an attempt to improve their lives

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railroad track

  • 193,000 miles of this had been laid in the US by 1900

  • 11 miles of this were laid each day (average)

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consolidation

the practice of combining companies into one ex: large railroad companies bought smaller companies or drove them out of business

  • it made companies more efficient because they would be able to go to work w/ fewer resources + they could set prices + processes

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railroad baron

powerful business leader who controlled a major railroad

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Cornelius Vanderbilt

  • one of the first railroad barons

  • his railroad empire stretched from New York City to the Great Lakes

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James J. Hill

a railroad baron who built the Great Northern line between Minnesota + Washington

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Central Pacific

  • a railroad founded by barons, Collis P. Huntington + Leland Stanford

  • this line connected California + Utah + formed part of the first transcontinental railroad

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cross-continent

transcontinental

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railroads

  • carried raw materials: iron, ore coal, + timber to factories

  • moved manufactured goods from factories to markets

  • shipped crops from farming areas to cities

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steel

has a stronger impact than iron, so they started using this for railroads

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industries helped by railroads

iron, steel, lumber, coal

  • iron + steel were used for railraod truck

  • lumber industry supplied for the railroad ties

  • coal industry provides fuel

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gauges

tracks with distances be us

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standard gauge

tracks w/ 4 feet, 8.5 inch distance

having one same gauge drove down shipping times + costs

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technology for railraods

air brakes, Janney cars, refrigerated railroad cars, + Pullman sleeping cas

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George Westinghouse

who invented the air brakes to safely stop trains

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Eli H. Janney

who invented Janney car couplers for railroad workers to link cars

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Gustavus Swift

who invented refrigerated railroad cars to ship meat + crops

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Gearge pullman

who invented the Pullman sleeping car, a luxurious railway car that turned into beds for overnight journeys

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rebate

a discount or return of part of a payment

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pool

  • formed by railroad barons

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