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quantitative data

research data that consist of numerical texts and measurements

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qualitative data

research data that consist of interview transcripts and narrative texts

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induction

logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations

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deduction

logical model in which specific expectations of hypotheses are developed on the basis of general principles

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unit of analysis

the what or whom being studied, most typical: individual people

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exploration

much of social research is conducted this way to start to familiarize a researcher with the topic

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description

done by describing situations and events, observes and then describes, more accurate and precise, answers questions what, where, when, and how

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explanation

addresses questions of why, to elaborate on the study

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nomothetic casuality

has 3 criteria: variables must be correlated, cause takes place before effect, and variables are nonspurious

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face validity

quality of an indicator that makes it seem a reasonable measure of some variable

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content validity

covers the range of meanings included within a concept

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criterion-related validity

using a student's SAT scores to determine admission to college assumes the ____ of the SAT scores as a measure of ability to do well in college

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concurrent validity

Validating new measure by comparing to existing measure

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predictive validity

Does a measure predict future criterion?

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concept

terms/labels used to organize our everyday experiences and to communicate them with others

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indicators

number of times a person swims a week as used to measure physical fitness is an example of...

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dimensions

specifiable aspects of a concept

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concept explication

The process by which abstract concepts are systematically linked to observed variations in those concepts in the real world

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meaning analysis (conceptualization)

uses only logical procedures to clearly connect conceptual w/ operational definitions

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empirical analysis

evaluating the explication of the concept on the basis of empirical evidence

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conceptual definition

concepts or variables to be studied

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operational definition

deciding on your measurement techniques

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correlation

found between two variables so that changes in one are associated w/ the next changes or particular attributes of one variable are associated w/ particular attributes of the other

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spurious relationship

a coincidental statistical correlation between two variables, shown to be caused by some third variable

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represents an order from more abstract to less abstract

concept, dimension, indicator

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six types of concepts covered in McLeod's

relational, class, mega, singular, recognize process, and variable

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what are the concepts within "television violence viewing increases aggressive behavior among adolescents"?

increases: relational concept, television violence viewing: variable concept

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theory (McLeod)

set of organized propositions that provide an explanation for some recurrent phenomenon of research interests

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necessary cause

represents a condition that must be present for the effect to follow

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two pillars of social science

logic and observation

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theory (quiz 1)

systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of life

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selective observation

concluding a research after assuming there is a pattern for events and situations that has occurred

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distinction between quantitative and qualitative methods in social research

numerical and nonnumerical data

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inductive approach

first observe for a period of time then determine if there is a pattern in the responses

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deductive theory

has a theory and wants to prove that it is true by going out and making observations

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use of inductive method

observations, pattern finding, generalizations

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aggregates

focus on whole group rather than focusing on an individual

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independent vs dependent variable

cause vs effect

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authority

relying on someone or something bigger or with more power than yourself

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reliability

a measure yields consistent scores, giving an exam on Monday and giving same exam on Wednesday

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three purposes of research

exploration, description, and explanation

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both test-retest methods and split-half methods

reliability

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construct validity

refers to the degree to which a measure relates to other variables as expected within a system of theoretical relationships, based on the logical relationships among variables

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reliability is a ...

prerequisite for measurement validity

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sufficient causes

represents a condition that, if it is present, guarantees the effect in question

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when something yields similar results but show a low correlation, the scale is

reliable but not valid

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test-retest reliability

make the same measurement more than once and expect the same results each time

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split-half reliability

make more than one measurement of any subtle or complex social concept

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validity

based on empirical reality, refers to extent to which an empirical measure adequately reflects the real meaning of the concept under consideration

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number one problem students face when writing a literature review

synthesizing

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logic of nomothetic explanation

seeks to explain a class of situations or events rather than a single one, identifies a few causal factors that generally impact a class of conditions events

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two miscues in history of sampling

election races of Alf Landon and Thomas E. Dewey

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two types of sampling methods

probability sampling and non probability sampling

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non probability sampling

any technique in which samples are selected in some way not suggested by probability theory

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examples of non probability sampling

reliance on available subjects, purposive (judgmental) sampling, snowball sampling, and quota sampling

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reliance on available subjects

doesn't permit any control over the representativeness of a sample, researchers must exercise great caution in generalizing from their data, ex: interviews to strangers on the street

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purposive (judgmental) sampling

to select a sample on the basis of knowledge of a population, its elements, and the purpose of the study

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snowball sampling

collects data on the few members of the target population he/she can locate then asks those individuals to prove the info needed to locate other members of that population whom they happen to know, ex: interview you then ask you for someone like you who i can interview

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quota sampling

addresses the issue of representativeness, units are selected into a sample on the basis of pre specified characteristics so that the total sample will have the same distribution of characteristics assumed to exist in the population being studied

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basic concepts of sampling

sample, population, sampling distribution, and sampling error

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probability sampling

samples selected in accordance w/ probability theory, what all large-scale survey uses

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parameter

summary description of a given variable in a population

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statistic

summary description of a variable in a sample

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sampling error

the degree of error to be expected for a given sample design

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confidence interval

the range of values within which a population parameter is estimated to lie

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confidence level

the estimated probability that a population parameter lies within a given confidence interval, ex: 95% confident that b/w 35 and 45% of all voters favor candidate A

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sampling frame

the list or quasi list of elements from which a probability sample is selected, ex: sample of students selected from a student roster

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simple random sampling

the basic sampling method assumed in the statistical computations of social research, units composing a population are assigned numbers

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systematic sampling

every #th element in the total list is chosen, for inclusion in the sample, ex: if the list contained 10,000 elements and you wanted a sample of 1,000, you would select every 10th element for your sample

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stratified sampling

a method for obtaining a greater degree of representativeness by decreasing the probable sampling error

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multistage cluster sampling

involves the repetition of two basic steps: listing and sampling, frequently used when a list of all the members of a population doesn't exist

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cluster sampling

may be used when it's either impossible or impractical to compile an exhaustive list of the elements composing the target population, natural

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sampling

process of selecting observations

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3 aspects of reliability

stability, equivalence, and homogeneity

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stability

Consistency across time, repeating a measure at a later time to examine the consistency

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equivalence (inter-coder reliability)

consistency between observers/coders/judges, Equivalent application of measuring device

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homogeneity (internal consistency)

Consistency between different measures of the same concept

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reliability is a ... for validity

necessary condition (if not reliable, not valid)

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reliability is not a ....for validity

a sufficient condition (if reliable, may not be valid)

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survey research

A sample of individuals in order to generalize to a larger population

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self-administered questionnaire

paper and pencil, mail, or internet

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interview surveys

face to face or telephone

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likert scale

Rensis Likert (1932) developed a scale for measuring attitudes

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semantic differential

A questionnaire format in which the respondent is asked to rate something in terms of two, opposite adjectives

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contingency question

A survey question intended for only some respondents, determined by their responses to some other question

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matrix question format

a lot cleaner, concise, clear to look at

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double barreled question

asking two questions that could be answered differently in the same question

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strengths of surveys

generalizability, representativeness, customizability

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weaknesses of surveys

time, cost, causality, declining response rates, seldom deal with context of social life

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questionnaire construction

asks questions and goes down to narrow final answer

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tension between reliability and validity

specifying reliable operational definitions and measurements robs concepts of their richness of meaning, concept may have no clear agreement on how to measure it or if it has several dimensions

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ordinary inquiry

answers "what" and "why" questions, and we pursue these goes by observing and figuring out, distinguish prediction and understanding

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errors in ordinary inquiry

inaccurate observations, selective observation, overgeneralization, and illogical reasoning

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replication

repeating an experiment to expose or reduce error

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attribute

a characteristic of a person or a thing

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variable

a logical set of attributes , "sex" is made up of another characteristic "male and female"

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hypothesis

a specified testable expectation about empirical reality that follows from a more general proposition

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informed consent

a norm in which subjects base their voluntary participation in research projects on a full understanding of the possible risks involved

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anonymity

guaranteed in a research project when neither the researchers nor the readers of the findings can identify a given response with a given respondent

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confidentiality

a research project guarantees confidentiality when the researcher can identify a given person's responses but promises not to do so publicly

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