Baroque Period Part One

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Baroque dates

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Baroque dates

1600-1750

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Baroque =

drama, emotion, virtuoso, Shakespeare, Architecture is dramatic

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What did inventors finance?

Opera Houses

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Where and when was the first opera house established?

Venice, Italy 1637

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There was a demand for what?

sheet music, instruments, lessons

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Public pays for what?

tickets, subscriptions to seasons

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What was the name of the second practice?

Secunda Practica

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Secunda Practica is

1st practice: don't violate counterpoint rules controlled dissonance 2nd practice: Counterpoint is broken Surprise dissonance by Monteverdi

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General characteristics of the Baroque: Texture

polarity between bass and melody Basso Continuo cello, bassoon, and viola da gamba played the bass line Improvised performances (toccata and prelude) Concertato Medium

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Basso Continuo

figured bass

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Concertato Medium

an agreement between instruments and voice

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General Chacteristics of the Baroque: Tuning and Harmony

equal temperament became more common Harmony was thought of in chords Chromaticism is introduced and later explored commonly

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General Characteristic: Performance Practice

ornamentation cadenzas by singers organists could change the length of pieces arias could be added or deleted from operas (could be tailored to certain singers)

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Opera literally means

work in Italian

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Baroque means

Misshapen pearl in Portuguese

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What were used as the model for opera?

Greek tragedies

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Girolamo Mei believed that Greek tragedies were

sung in full

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18

What year was Peri's Dafne (only fragments still exist)

1598

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What year was Peri's Euridice

1602

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What year was Monteverdi's Orfeo

1607

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What was the FIRST GREAT OPERA?

Orfeo 1607

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Orfeo

composed in Mantua songs are in strophic/variation form each verse is separated by a ritornello

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Why is Orfeo so important?

first great opera instruments are specified in the score

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After Orfeo...

Rome becomes the center for opera development in the 1620s range of the topics expanded: saints, religious aspects, comedy Big stage effects extended finales for choral singing and dancing

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What are Castrato Singers?

Men are castrated before puberty to sing female parts (so they can sing higher)

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10 years later in Venice, Italy

the first public theaters are developed in 1637 libretto becomes very important (the words) main composers of venetian opera: Cesti and Cavalli The singers were in charge - "diva"

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LISTENING: "Tu Sei Morta" from Orfeo (you will die)

composer: Monteverdi Date: 1607 Salient Features: Chromaticisim, polarity between bass and voice, Italian text

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Ricecar becomes what?

Fugue

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Ricecar is Italian for

"to seek out"

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Ricecar

derives from motet: both feature points of imitation what's new in Baroque? just ONE POINT OF IMITATION, Augmentation and Stretto polyphonic

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Augmentation is...

note value is longer

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Stretto is...

"narrow" repeating the subject before the subject finishes

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Canzona means

Italian for "song"

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Canzona becomes

sonata (sounded) aka no instruments

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Canzona

derived from French Chanson: both have familiar style and begins with L-S-S rhythm What's new in Baroque? sections get larger > eventually "movements" with contrasting tempos > sonata homophonic texture (predominately)

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Dance music becomes

suite (aka partita)

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Dance music

New in Baroque: dances are grouped in movements to form a suite; movements have contrasting tempos

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Suite Plan

Improvisatory piece , allemande, courante, sarabande, gigue

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Improvisatory piece -

prelude

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allemande

german for dance

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courante

french for run, triple meter

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sarabande

slow use for court

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gigue

3/8, dotted rhythm, fast

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Improvisatory types

toccata and prelude

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LISTENING: Toccata No. 3

1615 Frescobaldi (1583-1643) harpsichord, noodling, virtuosic (lively), showy, arpeggio, sections are short

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Style Catholic Sacred Music

Concertato Medium Basso Continuo Stile antico - ancient style

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Genres of C.S.M

Grand Concerto Concerto for few voices Sacred oratorio

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Grand Concerto

a large work for singers and instruments (not an oratorio yet) often in 2 or more choirs usually at large churches voices and instruments are in CORI SPEZZATI

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Concerto for Few voices

smaller, cheaper, easier for fewer voices and continuo derives from secular cantata more common than grand concerto Convent music meant for devotion, no public audiences (meaning women can sing)

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Sacred Oratorio

a sacred drama sung throughout with recitatives, arias, ensembles, and instrumental preludes "church hall" derives from opera leading composer is Carissimi (1605-1674)

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How is oratorio different than opera?

no stamina, no costumes ensembles could take on roles narrator is sung

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Carissimi dates

(1605-1674)

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Characteristics of Sacred oratorio

Biblical text - old testament Two Types: Oratorio Latino (Latin), Oratorio Volgare (Italian) action was not staged, instead it is narrated only solo and choral - no duets

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LISTENING: Jephtha (oratorio latino) "Pirate Fulli Israel"

1648 Carissimi (1605-1674) latin text, stretto, strings

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Names to know for French Opera

Cardinal Mazarin (brought opera over from Italy) Perrin - librettist Lully (1632-1687)

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Lully dates

1632-1687

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Lully

considered a jerk because he was a political animal instrumental composer to the Sun King Louis IV a ballet dancer

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Lully's operas were called

tragedies lyriques

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Characteristics of Lully's operas

lots of dancing participation of chorus more scenery less distinction of aria and recit. more instruments FRENCH OVERTURE (only instruments)

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Frenh Overture had two parts

Slow - dotted rhythms Fast - polyphonic

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Overdotting

dotted note performed longer than notated

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Argrements

ornamentation (brief)

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LISTENING Armide Overture,

Lully (1632-1687) 1686 pompous, overdotting, 2 sections

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English opera is after

1660

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Two popular genres

Masques and Semi-Operas

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Masques

an early variety show (consisted of recitatives, songs, choruses, dances, costumes, good poetry)

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Semi- Operas

a series of brief, unrelated masques drama is more important than music

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English Opera composer

Henry Purcell (1659-1695) Dido and Aeneas (1689) - famous opera

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LISTENING When I am Laid in Earth

1689 from Dido and Aeneas Purcell (1659-1695) no vibrato, ground bass, english text

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Invention of Ground Bass

Bass doesn't change, repeats throughout the whole section

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