6 Developmental Psychology

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84 Terms

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developmental psychology

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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zygote

the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

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embryo

the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

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fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

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teratogens

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking; in severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial disproportions

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habituation

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation; as infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner

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maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behaviour, relatively uninfluenced by experience

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cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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schema

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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assimilation

interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

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accommodation

adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

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sensorimotor stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

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preoperational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

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conservation

the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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egocentrism

in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

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theory of mind

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states, and about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviours these might predict

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autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviours

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concrete operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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formal operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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autism

a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of minds

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stranger anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

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attachment

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

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critical period

an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experience produces proper development

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imprinting

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

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temperament

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

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basic trust

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

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self-concept

our understanding and evaluation of who we are

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gender

in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female

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aggression

physical or verbal behaviour intended to hurt someone

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gender role

a set of expected behaviour for males or for females

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role

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

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gender identity

our sense of being male or female

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social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behaviour by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

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gender typing

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

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transgender

un umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex.

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adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

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identity

our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

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social identity

the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships

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intimacy

in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

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emerging adulthood

for some people on modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood

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X chromosome

the sex chromosome found in both men and women; females have two & males have one; one from each parent produces a female child

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Y chromosome

the sex chromosome found only in males; when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child

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testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones; both males & females have it, but the additional amount in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of male sex characteristics during puberty

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puberty

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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primary sex characteristics

the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible

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secondary sex characteristics

non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair

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menarche

the first menstrual period

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50

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)

a life-threatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ___ depletes the immune system, leaving the person vulnerable to infections

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sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation), the other sex (heterosexual orientation), or both sexes (bisexual orientation).

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menopause

the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

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cross-sectional study

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

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longitudinal study

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

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social clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

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Kohlberg

sought to describe the development of moral reasoning by posing moral dilemmas to children and adolescents, such as "Should a person steal medicine to save a loved one's life?"

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preconventional morality

in Kohlberg’s stages of moral development, children before age 9 typically exhibit self-interest, obeying rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards

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conventional morality

one of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development during early adolescence characterized by the desire to uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order

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postconventional morality

in Kohlberg's stages of moral development, during adolescence and beyond, individuals' actions reflect their belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles

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sex

biologically influenced characteristics that define male or female

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androgyny

a blend of traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics

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neurocognitive disorder

condition, previously dementia, that decreases blood flow to the hippocampus over time. risk increases with age

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conception

a single sperm cell penetrates the outer coating of the egg and fuses to form one fertilized cell

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innate reflexes

infants are born with reflexes that aid in survival, such as blinking, grasping, rooting, stepping, sucking, swimming, tonic neck, startle and the Babinski reflex

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infantile amnesia

the earliest age of conscious memory is around 3.5 years, attributed to the lack of developed language abilities at that age, although associations between actions and results can still be learned

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authoritarian parenting

parenting style in which parents impose rules and expect obedience

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permissive parenting

parenting style in which parents submit to children’s demands

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authoritative parenting

parenting style in which parents are demanding but responsive to their children. correlates with social competence

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neglectful parenting

parenting style in which parents are uninvolved, careless, inattentive and don’t seek a relationship

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Lev Vygotsky

proposed that temporary supports are offered to children as the mind grows with interaction with the social environment so that children learn in a zone of proximal development

<p>proposed that temporary supports are offered to children as the mind grows with interaction with the social environment so that children learn in a zone of proximal development</p>
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71

secure attachment

type of emotional bond expressed by approximately 60% of children when placed in a strange situation; they exhibit a willingness to explore their environment happily in the presence of their mothers. however, upon their mother's departure, they demonstrate distress. common with mothers who are sensitive and responsive.

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insecure attachment

emotional bond expressed by approximately 40% of children when placed in a strange environment. children tend to cling to their mothers or caregivers and are less likely to explore their environment. common with mothers who are insensitive and unresponsive.

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avoidant attachment

emotional bond in which people are clingy out of fear of rejection which can increase conflict in a relationship

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anxious attachment

emotional bond displayed by people constantly craving acceptance and being alert to possible rejection

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75

separation anxiety

displayed by infants that have higher heart rates and become more easily agitated. parents using more sensitive responding will help attachment

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Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development during infancy

trust vs. mistrust

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Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development during toddlerhood

autonomy vs. shame and doubt

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Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development during preschooler

initiative vs. guilt

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Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development during elementary school

competence vs. inferiority

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80

Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development during adolescence

identity vs. role confusion

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Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development during young adulthood

intimacy vs. isolation

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Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development during middle adulthood

generativity vs. stagnation

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Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development during late adulthood

integrity vs. despair

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84

The imaginary audience phenomenon

refers to the belief that a person is under constant, close observation by peers, family, and strangers

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