History Vocab: Topic Four

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Capitalism

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Vocabulary

21 Terms

1

Capitalism

An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.

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2

Free Enterprise

An economic system where private businesses operate and compete and are largely free of state control.

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3

Socialism

Means of production and business are owned and regulated by a community rather than a single person or government. Goods are distributed to everyone.

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4

Communism

An economic and political system based on a one party government and state ownership of property.

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5

Command Economy

An economy in which production, investment, prices, and incomes are determined centrally by a government.

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6

Tariff

Tariffs give a price advantage to locally-produced goods over similar goods which are imported, and they raise revenues for governments. Put limits on goods from overseas.

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7

Nativism

The policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.

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8

Chinese Exclusion Act

A law enacted in 1882, that prohibited all chinese, except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials from entering the United States.

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9

Gentlemen’s Agreement

A 1907-1908 agreement between the U.S. and Japanese government to limit japanese immigration to the United States.

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10

Annexation

The action of annexing something, especially territory.: "the annexation of Austria". Seizure

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11

Urbanization

The process of making an area more urban.: "he saw nature being destroyed by urbanization" "public opposition to the urbanization of the countryside".

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12

Americanization Movement

Education programs designed to help immigrants assimilate to American culture.

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13

Tenement

Multi-family urban dwelling, usually overcrowded and unsanitary.

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14

Social mobility

The ability of families or individuals to move to higher social classes.

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15

Social stratification

The organization of people into social classes by wealth.

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16

Political machine

An organized group that controls a political party in a city and offers services to voters and businesses in exchange for political and financial support.

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17

Graft

The illegal use of political influence for personal gain.

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18

Patronage

An officeholder’s power to appoint people. usually those that have helped him or her get elected. to positions in the government.

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19

Civil service

The nonmilitary branches of government administration.

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20

Pendleton Civil Service Act

A law, enacted in 1883, that established a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to government jobs by means of merit system.

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21

Pragmatism

A school of philosophical thought developed in the late 19th century that aimed to reconcile the tensions between science and morality and religion.

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