APUSH Unit 4 Terms + Dates

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54-40 or Fight James Polk's campaign slogan. 54 minutes and 40 seconds

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54-40 or Fight James Polk's campaign slogan. 54 minutes and 40 seconds

James Polk's pro-expansionist campaign slogan. 54 minutes and 40 seconds parallel was the Oregon border, which was claimed by both the US and British. British had fur trade there. Americans were also settling there in greater numbers than British.

Wanted to take Oregon, even if it meant war. He drops it, because the British offered compromise: divide Oregon. Northern democrats accused him for treachery for not fighting for it

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American Anti-Slavery Society (1833)

Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. -Spread rapidly through North, promoted abolitionism

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Auburn System (1816)

Auburn system, 1816, allowed congregation of prisoners during the day -Made by Dorothea Dix -Gave prisoners jobs so they can transition back into society easily -Absolute silence required at all times -Mirroring society -Less repeated offenses

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Charles G. Finney

1821, abandoned career as a lawyer and encouraged people to abandon sin and lead good lives in dramatic sermons at religious revivals -In New York. The Erie Canal made many towns pop up, and many people were anxious, making it good for revivalism to comfort them. -Father of modern revivalism / the 2nd Great Awakening -Involved in abolitionism and women's rights as well

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Compromise of 1850

-Made by Clay (1) California admitted as free state, (2) Territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas -Taylor opposed it, but died. His vice president Fillmore approved it.

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Denmark Vesey (1822)

United States freed slave and insurrectionist in South Carolina who was involved in planning an uprising of slaves and was hanged (1767-1822) -Failed -Planned for five years

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Dorothea Dix (1802-1887)

A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. -Aburn system 1816 -Hospitals for people with mental illnesses

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Election of 1844

Main debate over Texas. Whigs nominate Henry Clay and democrats nominate James Polk. Polk says he will annex Texas and Oregon to make both sides happy. Polk was elected -Liberty Party (anti-slavery) (steals votes in New York) -First time slavery influenced elections

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Election of 1848

Zachary Taylor won (whig) -Whigs chose him because he was a general, similar to what they did with William H Harrison (elect for popularity, but neglect platform) (casted aside Clay) Martin Van Buren (Free Soil Party, opposed slavery, got 10% of votes) Lewis Cass (popular sovereignty, Democrat). -People agreed not to talk about slavery

-Taylor wanted to annex California and New Mexico, but that would've disrupted the power balance (cotton can't be grown in New Mexico) (leads to compromise of 1850)

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Elizabeth Cady Stanton

A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton made "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."

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Frederick Douglass (1817-1895)

Escaped slave, leading spokesman and writer. He published his autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star. -Emphasized dehumanization of slavery -Believed in full equality

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Free Soil Party (1848)

Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory. -Participated in election fo 1848 -Van Buren had support of Northern democrat and merged with Liberty Party (Northern whigs to make this party -Received 10% of votes, 300K people, but lost to Zachary Taylor

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Gag Rule (1836)

1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress. -Caused by angered cotton whigs when the Texas question was offered

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James Polk (1845-1849) (Democrat)

-Won election of 1844 because of the Liberty Party -Jacksonian, opposed high tariffs and against establishing another national bank -Mexican War -> Acquires CA -Obtains Oregon -Lowered tariff of 1842 -Got Texas through Mexican-Am war and Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

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Liberty Party (1839)

A former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848. -Big role in Election of 1844 -Made by Northern Whigs -Candidate: James G. Birney, Kentucky slaveholder to evangelist Christian and abolitionist -Many of his voters were from west of New York, a swing state -Stole votes from Clay -If Clay won New York, he would've been president

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Manifest Destiny (1800s)

A notion held by 1800s Americans that the United States were destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific. A God-given right. -Expansionism -Each year of national growth increased power and confidence in people -Needed access to resources -Caused Oregon Fever

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Mormons (1830)

Sect (group?) of Christianity created by the Second Great Awakening.

Founded by Joseph Smith in New York. Claimed to have visions and find the Book of Mormon. Made a small community that got backlash because they had exclusivism that they were a chosen people. They had to escape to Missouri, then Illinois, and then eventually Utah. Joseph Smith also made a paramilitary organization and that got him killed.

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Mr. Polk's War (1846-1848)

AKA Mexican American War. Called Mr. Polk's War by critics. Texas claimed independence, but Mexico didn't recognize it. Texas applied for statehood. -People thought Mr. Polk misled Congress, and that the United States was the aggressor. -At first US tried to buy the land, but they said no -Polk sent general Zachary Taylor to advance American troops at Rio Grande river, and people got killed. -Declared war -Pretty quick war; three-prong attack system effective

Effects: Land from treaty of Guadalupe, Wilmot Proviso, Mexicans living there made citizens, Mexicans and Natives both discriminated (voter discrimination and educational segregation) -US went from a hero that ended European colonization with the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 to a bully that was stealing territory rom Mexico

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Nat Turner (1831)

Black preacher who led a slave rebellion in Virginia, killing 57 Virginians. Claimed that God told him to do it. Turner and his group were hung. -Increased tensions -Southerners stopped bringing slaves to church, stopped educating them, punished them more harshly -Any interests in stopping slavery disappeared in the South -One of the last slave rebellions

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Popular Sovereignty

People should decide on the slavery question in territories. Introduced by Cass. -Alludes to arguments on the Mexican Cession -Disagreed because the Compromise of 1820 already decided on where slavery could be -Also disagreed because of power balance

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Second Great Awakening 1800-1831

A series of religious revivals starting in 1801. People organized camp meetings where preachers spoke to people and connected people together

-Begins in the west, where people are scattered and need the unifying force of religion

Causes: Lower birth rates and parents valuing their children more, growth of evangelism beliefs that oppose Calvinism (child damnation & pre-destination; sinful people can obtain salvation), increased democracy that promoted individualism, rejecting Enlightenment's rational beliefs for Romanticism (promotes spiritual growth and emotional reality)

Effects: Temperance movement, prison reform, Auburn System, transcendentalism, voluntary organizations, "benevolent empire" mormonism, shakers (Ann Lee), creation of schools and libraries

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Seneca Falls Convention (1848)

(1848) the first national woman's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written -Elizabeth Stanton -In New York

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Susan B. Anthony

social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation -Emphasized organization -Friends with Elizabeth Stanton

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Temperance movement (1826s)

An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption. Social reform. -Really took into effect in the 1830s

-Boosted by moral values of Second GA -Many people consumed alcohol regularly due to the availability of cheap corn and rye whiskey -3/4 of nation at least 4 ounces of liquor a day in the 1820s

-American Temperance Union 1826. -Lectures, rallies, pamphlets, people proved correlation of alcohol consumption and crime

-Charles G Finney (revivalist minister) argued alcohol was barrier to conversion

-Germans and Irish immigrants felt angry -So were Catholics that used wine in religious services

-Laws passed, many states banned alcohol manufacturing and sale -Decreases domestic violence, crime, and work place accidents. Consumption declines

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Transcendentalists (1830)

Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms. -Challenges rationalism -Margaret Fuller, challenged idea of marriage and the place of women in society

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Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)

Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million (Mexico cession), made southern border of Texas Rio Grande -1/2 million square miles

-Demonstrated US' power to Europe -Turning point in US-Latin American relations (US is a bully now)

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Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)

1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundary disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada. -New boundary lines -Basically British and US were fighting over trees and started killing each other -Mesabi Range also involved, biggest iron deposit in world, contributing to industrial revolution 50 years later

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Whig Party (1834)

An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements -Part of the 2nd Party System -Replaced the National Republicans -Nominated Clay and Z Taylor in respective elections 44 48

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William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879)

Named as the person who started abolitionism. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. -Believed in equality -Through means of moral persuasion, not violence -Starts American Anti-Slavery society, which spread rapidly through North -Wanted it to immediately end -Burned the Constitution in the public -Supported women's rights

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Wilmot Proviso (1846)

1846 proposal by David Wilmot that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico -"No slavery in Mexican cession" -Southern reply in Calhoun Memorandum, which said that Congress may not interfere with slavery because slaves were property, and the constitution protected the right of property -Got voted down, highlights tensions of slavery question -North made Free Soil Movement, and believed in free labor in Cession

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1787

First Shaker Community

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1793

Cotton gin, Eli Whitney

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1790's-1830's

2nd Great Awakening

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1822

Vesey Revolt

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1820

J. Smith reveals Book of Mormon

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1831

The Liberator debut, Nat Turner's Rebellion

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1835

Tocqueville's Democracy in America

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1836

Congress adopted the "gag rule", Texas Independence from Mexico

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1841-1867

Westward migration, Oregon Trail, Brook Farm & Oneida Community established

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1845

Inauguration of James Polk, U.S. annexed Texas

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1846-1848

Mexican American War

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1846

Wilmot Proviso

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1847

The North Star debut

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1848

Seneca Falls Convention, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Free Soil Party Formed, Gold Rush in CA,

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1850

Compromise of 1850

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1852

Uncle Tom's Cabin

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1854

Henry David Thoreau's Walden

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Extra: Yeoman Farmers

Most farmers weren't slaveowners (only 25% of the South did). Many lived with slaves (couldn't afford plantations) -Participated in local markets -Dreamed of owning plantations

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Extra: Jaffa Elkans historians

Jaffa - slaves can do other things besides cotton, slavery will spread Elkans - slaves liked slavery

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Extra: Methodist Church (1816)

Founded by Richard Allen (black) -Communities in school that provided protection and support

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Extra: David Walker

Believed in abolition through force

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Extra: Mariah Stewart

1st recorded American feminist, first to publicly speak in front of men

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Extra: Grimkle Sisters

Slaveowners but thought slavery was wrong -went to the North, got disowned by family -believed in equal opportunity

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Extra: slave revolts

Gabriel Prosser 1800 VA - info leaked, hung LA Revolt (German coast uprising) - US troops put it down

Also 10-15% of Southerners had more than 20 slaves in the 19th century

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Extra: Prigg v PA 1842

Federal laws > state laws Slave (Prigg) was brought to fed gov. Gov puts her back into slavery -Federal Fugitive Slave Law more powerful than Personal Liberty Law

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Extra: railroads

-Commercial farming exploded -Goods transported faster -Growth to government bonds and private investors (never federally funded)

South had fewer railroads (dependent on slavery, scattered population, agricultural)

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Extra: Oneida community

Basically they encouraged sex with everyone (group marriage)

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