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1

Dependent (paired t-test)

2 samples are related, typically that the 2 samples come from the same person measured twice

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2

What question does a paired t-test answer?

are the differences in the scores on average significantly different from zero

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3

Conditions for paired t-test

both groups will have the same number of responses since the scores for each response are matched -can't have missing data

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4

sample size for paired t-test

the number of paired values (half the number of total responses)

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5

null hypothesis for paired t test

mean of the difference is equal to zero

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6

assumptions for paired t-test

-random sampling -independent observations -normal population distribution or large sample (25+)

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7

alpha level

.05

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8

standard deviation

sqrt(sum of differences between observed and average difference of scores)/n-1

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9

independent t-test

comparing 2 groups of unrelated responses to see if the group means are significantly different

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10

how are independent t-tests different from paired t-tests?

independent t-test involves 2 entirely separate groups

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11

assumptions of independent t-test

-random samples -independent observations -normal population distribution or large sample -independent samples

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12

paired t-test alternate hypothesis

mean of differences does not equal zero

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13

null hypothesis for independent t test

(mean of group one)-(mean of group 2)=0

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14

alternate hypothesis for independent t-test

(mean of group one)-(mean of group 2) does not equal zero

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15

degrees of freedom of independent t test

smaller sample size minus one

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16

bar chart of means

error bars are based on standard error -if bars overlap there is no significant difference -if they do not overlap there is a significant difference

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17

when writing hypothesis notation for independent t test

the order which you subtract the two group means does not matter as long as it's the same way calculated during t test

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18

When to reject the null hypothesis

When the t-stat is more extreme than the t-critical

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19

When to fail to reject the null hypothesis

when the t-stat falls between the t-critical values

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20

degrees of freedom of paired t-test

population size minus 1

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