Studied by 10 people

5.0(1)

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1

r strategists

reproduce quickly and at an early age with large numbers of offspring and little to no parental care, have short lifespans and aren’t affected much by unstable environments

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2

K strategists

mature slowly and have small amounts of offspring with lots of parental care, live for a long time and tolerate stable environmental conditions

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3

what reproductive strategy do invasive species tend to have?

they tend to be r-selected

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4

type I survivorship curve

most survive until they’re old (late loss) - typically K strategists

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5

type II survivorship curve

relatively constant death rate throughout life (stable loss)

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6

type III survivorship curve

high death rate at the beginning of their life - typically r strategists (early loss)

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7

specialists

can only exist within a certain set of conditions (narrow range of tolerance) and are vulnerable to changing factors

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8

generalists

can live in many different types of environments and have a varied diet, (wide range of tolerance) have an advantage in unstable environments

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9

change in population equation

Change in population = [b(births) + I(immigration)] - [d(deaths) + e(emigration)]

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10

growth rate equation

∆N/∆t = gr

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11

population distribution patterns…

are based on resource availability

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12

random population distribution

abundant and evenly distributed resources

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13

clumped population distribution

scarce/clumped resources

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14

spaced population distribution

resource partitioning, lowering competition

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15

population density

the number of individuals in a definite area or volume

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16

population density equation

D_{p} = N/A or N/V

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17

density dependent factor

any factor whose effect increases when the population size increases (starvation, parasitism, disease, predation)

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18

density independent factors

natural disasters (storms, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes)

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19

lag phase

when population size primarily increases slowly

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20

exponential phase

after lag phase, number of individuals multiplies rapidly

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21

carrying capacity (K)

the maximum amount of individuals in a population the environment can support

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22

biotic potential (r)

the maximum reproductive rate for a population in ideal conditions (exponential growth)

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23

logistic growth (J and S curve)

exponential growth that levels off around carrying capacity

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24

what happens when a population reaches carrying capacity?

the population will level off or bust

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25

boom, then bust

population grows rapidly and overshoots (boom), and then begin to die rapidly (bust)

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26

overshoot

when a population exceeds carrying capacity

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27

doubling time equation

DT = 70/% growth per unit time (r)

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28

Thomas Malthus

theorized that like the rest of nature, humans would be limited by certain factors

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29

what countries tend to grow the fastest?

less developed countries

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30

how did technological advances lead to a population boom?

they lowered death rates

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31

correlation between high infant mortality and high population growth rate

people have more children to replace those lost

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32

solutions to high infant mortality rate

good healthcare and good nutrition

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33

TFR (Total fertility rate)

the number of children a woman will have in her lifetime

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34

replacement fertility

the number of children a couple must have in order to replace themselves and keep the population stable

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35

why is replacement fertility (typically) 2.1?

not all babies born will survive, so exactly 2.0 will not keep the population stable

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36

as countries develop their economy…

women will want fewer children

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37

what does a high proportion of young people show?

high population momentum: rapid population growth; all those kids will have kids of their own

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38

what does a high proportion of old people show?

declining growth rates with more future deaths than births

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39

when does a population become stable?

when the birth rate is equal to the death rate and there is no net growth

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40

demographic transition: stage 1

pre-transition, high birth and death rates and stable growth

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41

demographic transition: stage 2

transition stage, death rates begin to decline while the birth rate stays high, population boom

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42

demographic transition: stage 3

industrial stage, birth rate begins to decline while the death rate continues to decline, growth slows

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43

demographic transition: stage 4

post-industrial stage, birth and death rates are both low, growth stabilizes

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44

urbanization

the redistribution of people from rural to urban area; occurs as countries industrialize

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