inr exam 2

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people

are essential to any political institution

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people and the social contract

people are active in the social contract people can decide they no longer want to be apart of the contract

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example of people and the social contract

it took 10 years for soviet union to collapse collapsed peacefully because people wanted change gorbachev said army wouldnt intervene if they decided they wanted to break apart like czechoslovakia wanting to be two different states

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problem of order

has been affected by global issues like health and the economy

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without the people

there is no social contract and there is no order the solution to issues of power come from the people

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people and political anarchy

people need to be active, individual agents because of political anarchy because no one is in charge and no state can take control

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citizenship can be seen as

within the states

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globalization

the interdependence and interconnectedness of states

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the first debate of citizenship

should citizenship be primarily local or global?

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the second debate of citizenship

can non state institutions be places for the exercise of the rights and duties of citizenship?

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the notion of citizenship is tied to?

a government

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examples of citizenship being tied to government

travel documents like passports can be regional, like were countries in the EU allow for people to travel between countries easily

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the third debate of citizenship

can we think of who are the global citizens?

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citizenship is given...

and defines who people are in the world but the concept is limited and often leads to migrants being stuck and left without citizenship

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is citizenship a constructed concept?

yes

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citizenship is...

an exercise of power by the state either given at birth or after completing certain forms

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it is necessary to

question usual notions of power apply a new concept of power

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migration

is essential to human life on the planet

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states have the power to decide

who becomes a citizen or not

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example of symbolic notion of power

by practice and constitution, the queen doesnt really participate in politics lol the monarchy is a symbolic role unless they have to approve a new PM

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citizenship has more

symbolic value than politics

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defining feature of world politics

is that we do not have a world government

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global citizen

someone who identifies with being part of an emerging world community and whose actions contribute to building this community's values and practices

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to be a global citizen

means that one must act as a global citizen

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acting as a global citizen

can occur through ngos and social media use of technology

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the internet

a symbolic space that cannot be controlled

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symbolic gestures, rituals, and words

deal with the cultures and values of the human people therefore play a role in politics because what is important to them becomes an issue of life and death

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symbols

can be a form of political action example: women in iran taking off their hijabs in protest against the morality police

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two aspects of sovereignty

internal/domestic external dimension

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internal/domestic sovereignty

the government is the highest legal authority over its land and the people the government is called the sovereign the states in the us also have their own levels of sovereignty

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example of internal/domestic sovereignty

laws specific to florida do not apply to rest of the us

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external dimension

beyond the control of any one state states see each other as having their own level of sovereignty and recognize laws and powers of other states can also be that states reject/ignore sovereignty

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external sovereignty is granted by

outsiders and other states

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example of external sovereignty

palestine wanting their own state but the international community does not see them as sovereign

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you can claim internal sovereignty but...

it does not equal external sovereignty

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sovereignty

the deployment and exercise of power

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the notion of global citizenship...

cannot be controlled by the states

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internet and power

before the internet, states could declare where their power applied now that is no longer possible because of social media and hacking it has redefined sovereignty

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every person as an individual...

is an agent as a social individual

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social individuals

have the power as a human being to transform the world and the ability to carve out their own spheres of autonomy and freedom to act

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populism aims

to stand up for the people

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populism can weaken or strengthen...

global citizenship

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populism

a political tendency that seeks to separate the people of an imagined heartland from allegedly self-interested and corrupt elites

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another way to phrase populism

the conditions you are living in are responsible because of a certain group of people

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populism asserts

that the elites are responsible for the social and economic problems perceived to affect "the people" or "the nation"

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populism proposes

that the people are the way to fix whats wrong in the state

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populism and italy's elections

a new government was elected by a new prime minister who is a part of a neo fascist party that came from wwii fascism all while claiming to be speaking for the people

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populism and the cold war

the western and eastern fronts would describe each other in the same terms

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populism is always a

risk in a democratic system

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populists

blur the line between truth and falsehood when trying to separate the two groups

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populism's changes

changes in place changes in time changes in scope

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umbrella revolution

2014 and 2018-2020 in hong kong umbrellas became a symbol of protests during the events involved popular protests against authoritarian rule and lack of democracy

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opec

organization of petroleum exporting countries

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if opec increases or decreases oil prices...

it affects our livelihood

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why is power important important in world politics?

because of anarchy nobody is fully in control so more power means you have more control on the world stage

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power allows for

countries to act in their own self interest

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symbolic power

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protecting symbolic power

every country has big power so when anything bad is said, they try to disprove it and defend their image in order to protect their symbolic power

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rhetorical threats have to be

followed up with action

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different types of power are always...

competing

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limited/traditional concept of power

actor A controls actor B to do what B would not otherwise do

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example of limited/traditional power

russia forcing ukraine to abide by the wishes of the kremlin and putin

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resolve of the people to defend their homeland

can be stronger than nuclear war examples: ukraine, vietnam, wars of liberation

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political anarchy means

that international law is different from domestic law

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international court of justice

a court established to settle disputes between members of the united nations works differently because we do not have a centralized agency thats in business of enforcing the law

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the classical example of power

the balance of power

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cold war

equal amount of power between russia and the us both balanced each others power with equal influence across the world

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pakistan and india

under british rule, it was one country ethnic conflict after the rule made it so muslim indians broke off into pakistan they had wars between each other and didnt sign a treaty but now they balance each others powers india obtained its first bomb then pakistan

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interdependence and technology

makes borders more open therefore classical balance of power is no longer a form of interpretation and analysis of governments and conflicts

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scholars of world politics

employ multiple conceptions of power and have developed different conceptual frameworks that encourage rigorous attention to power in its different forms

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power is

the production in and through social relations of effects that shape the capabilities of actors and determine their circumstances and fate

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social relations

interactions between actors

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blaming and shaming

states dont like to be shamed or blamed even if they know theyve done something wrong they refuse to be shamed on the world stage

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if you dont have capacities to determine your fate

you do not have power

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capacities can be

economic political social

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two crucial dimensions to understanding power

how power is expressed the specificity of social relations of power

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how power is expressed

the kinds of social relations through which actors capacities are shaped and manifested

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the specificity of social relations of power

direct diffuse

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direct

immediate

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diffuse

indirect

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diplomacy

knowing what to not to say or when to say it

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opec and oil

working together to affect oil prices shows how they are a part of a social relations network since they are held accountable by each other

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nopec

amend sherman act to make oil producting and exporting cartels illegal meant to punish opec countries by raising prices of oil by reducing production of oil

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russia and opec

they want to produce more because the war in ukraine has put their economy in shambles

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compulsory power

one actor has direct control over another actor

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example of compulsory

russia invading ukraine to punish them for not siding with russia using nuclear weapons to deter

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institutional power

actors' control over socially distant others

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example of institutional power

united nations is a huge institution un security council un can sanction russia

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institution

a set of rules, resources, actors, and practices

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key features of institutions (arrpp)

actors rules resources practices persistence

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the biggest key feature of an institution

persistence in time

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the overlap between institutional power and compulsory power

institutional power may want to force others or refrain from others to do something example: economic sanctions on the un or when afghanistan in 2001

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productive power

production of agents through diffuse social relations it produces us the agents and gives us power

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example of productive power

markets produce citizens as consumers and producers colonial occupation of country produces local citizens as freedom fighters

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all three types of power

are often working in combination with each other

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power can involve being

powerful and not being powerful at the same time

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to be power and not to be powerful

the logic that should be applied in trying to understand power and exercise

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the executive

is in charge of defining and acting on behalf of the country when dealing with the outside world

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hans j morgenthau

german politics among nations believed states power comes from material capabilities

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two power changes in the 70s

emergence of 120 nations the cold war

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