Chapter 1 APUSH Study Guide

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theory of Pangea

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theory of Pangea

continents were once settled together into one mega-continent

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what the Great Ice Age covered

North America and present day American Midwest

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glaciers shrunk

Great Ice Age diminished

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emergence of Land Bridge

linked Asia and North America

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people crossed land bridge

entered North, Central, and South Americas

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small populations

made it easier for Europeans to colonize continent

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new trade routes

what Columbus looked for

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Columbian Exchange

<p>increase of global commerce, brought new crops to America, brought livestock, sugar coffee, guns, disease-corn and potatoes provided caloric foods Europeans carried disease through rats</p>

increase of global commerce, brought new crops to America, brought livestock, sugar coffee, guns, disease-corn and potatoes provided caloric foods Europeans carried disease through rats

<p>increase of global commerce, brought new crops to America, brought livestock, sugar coffee, guns, disease-corn and potatoes provided caloric foods Europeans carried disease through rats</p>
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because of Columbus landing in the Americas

90% of Natives die because of no immunity to plague

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Treaty of Tordesillas

Spanish and Portuguese divide America

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why Aztec, Mayan, and Inca civilization grew

innovations in agriculture and creation of primitive governments

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technology Indigenous people didn't have

wheat, ships, guns, writing, metalwork

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technology Indigenous people did have

farming, step pyramids, calendar, astronomy

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reason Natives traded with Europeans for guns

defense against other tribes

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why all tribes and Spanish came together

to defeat Aztecs and Trade Goods

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Natives before Europeans

spread maize (corn) from Mexico into American southwest which supported economic development, irrigation systems, diversification: corn=civilization

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European exploration

stemmed from search for new resources

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Incans

highly advanced South American civilization in Peru

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Aztecs

created math and writing, conquered other tribes, one large group, only real empire in America, enslaved other tribes, human sacrifice, hated by Shawnee, Apache, Cherokee and Comanche

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Plantation

commercial crop farm employing indentured servants and then slave labor

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Encomienda

Spanish government law to give Natives to colonists to Christianize them

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Mestizos

mixed Native and European heritage

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Conquistadores

16th century Spanish who spread out across the Americas

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Pueblo Revolt

Pueblo Indians revolt that drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico, burnt down all of the Catholic churches

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Battle of Acoma

between Spaniards and Pueblo Indians, Spain won establishing New Mexico

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Ferdinand of Aragon

sovereign in Spain who married Isabella of Castile

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Christopher Columbus

Italian explorer persuaded Spain to fund trip to India, discovered New World instead

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Francisco Coronado

searched for golden cities (Aztecs). Traveled through Arizona, New Mexico and Kansas. Discovered Grand Canyon, Colorado River, and Buffalo herds

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Francisco Pizarro

conquered Icans and generated wealth

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Bartholome de Las Casas

Spanish Missionary who spoke out against encomienda

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Hernan Cortes

worked with Natives to fight Aztecs

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Moctezuma

Aztec chieftain, believed Cortes was Quetzalcoatl (Aztec god)

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Robert de La Salle

traveled the Mississippi River

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Iroquois Confederation

developed the political and organization skills to sustain a robust military allience

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marriage between Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille and the expulsion of Muslims from Spain

made Spain eager to outrace Portuguese and tap into West Indies

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Europeans wanted goods from India

eager for new trade routes

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Bahamas

where Columbus landed

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The Caribbean

served as a "base of operations" for Spanish conquer of Americas

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Cortes solution to preventing retreat

burning of Spanish ships

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Moctezuma's allowance for Spaniards to enter his kingdom

eventually led to the Aztecs attack on Cortes and Cortes overthrowing the Aztecs

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fundamental factors that drew Europeans to the exploration, conquest, and settlement of the New World

need for land, need for new trade routes to India, competition, and need for resources

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impact on Indian's because of European exploration, conquest and settlement of the New World

disease, loss of land, colonization, religious conversion, conquered tribes, and weapons

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