IB Ecology

studied byStudied by 6 people
4.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Ecology

1 / 73

Tags and Description

help

74 Terms

1

Ecology

The science of the relationships between organisms and their environments.

New cards
2

Organism

an individual living thing that uses energy, reproduces, responds, grows, and develops

New cards
3

Species

a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring

New cards
4

Population

group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area at same time

New cards
5

Community

a number of different populations living and interacting in the same area (all the living things in an area)

New cards
6

Ecosystem

a community and its abiotic environment (all the living things in an area interacting with the non-living things)

New cards
7

Autotroph

  • also known as a producer

  • an organism capable of making its own food from inorganic substances using light or chemical energy.

  • eg. Green plants, algae, and certain bacteria

New cards
8

Heterotroph

An organism that obtains organic food molecules by consuming other organisms or substances derived from them.

New cards
9

Carbon cycle

the continuous process by which carbon is exchanged between organisms and the environment

New cards
10

Energy flow

energy from the sun is captured by producers and passed along food chains by consumption and decomposition. Energy is lost at each stage.

New cards
11

Trophic level

each step in a food chain or food web. producers are at level 1.

New cards
12

Food web

network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem (all interconnected food chains)

New cards
13

Food chain

shows the transfer of energy along a feeding relationship from producers along the different trophic levels

producer --> primary consumer --> secondary consumer --> tertiary consumer

eg. grass --> cricket --> mouse --> snake

New cards
14

Pyramid of energy

a diagram to show the energy contained in a food chain, web or community

New cards
15

10% Rule

the idea that only 10% of the energy in one trophic level gets passed onto the next trophic level due to losses of heat (respiration), feces, decomposition, etc

New cards
16

Producer

organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds; also called an autotroph

New cards
17

Consumer

organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supply; also called a heterotroph

New cards
18

Primary Consumer

Consumer that feeds directly on producers; (animals that feed on plants, algae or phytoplankton)

New cards
19

Secondary Consumer

An organism that eats primary consumers; (animals that generally feed on herbivores)

New cards
20

Tertiary Consumer

An organism that eats secondary consumers; The third trophic level of consumer in a food chain; A carnivore that eats other carnivores.

New cards
21

Detritivore

A specific type of heterotroph that eats plant and animal remains and other dead matter (ex. vultures, earthworms, crabs, etc.)

New cards
22

Saprotroph

A specific type of heterotroph that lives on or in non-living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion (e.g. mushrooms, bacteria); = a type of decomposer

New cards
23

Precautionary Principle

The principle that states that when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or to the environment, safety should prevail and control measures should be initiated even if cause-and-effect relationships are not fully established

New cards
24

Detritus

nonliving organic matter; typically includes decaying dead organisms as well as fecal matter

New cards
25

Habitat

the area where an organism lives, including the biotic and abiotic factors that affect it

New cards
26

Limiting factor

factor that is needed for continued population growth - if in short supply it will stop the population growing or cause decline

New cards
27

External factor

any living or nonliving factor that impacts the survival of an organism, population, or community (can be a limiting factor or a non-limiting factor)

New cards
28

Abiotic

non-living

New cards
29

Biotic

living

New cards
30

Greenhouse effect

Natural phenomenon which maintains temperatures required for life to live on Earth where short wave (visible light) radiation from sun is absorbed by the surface of the planet and re-radiated at longer wavelengths which get trapped by gases in the atmosphere

New cards
31

Potential problems associated with climate change

  1. ice habitats are melting (destruction of habitats)

  2. flooding (destruction of habitats)

  3. desertification

  4. more extreme weather events

  5. species extinction

  6. movement of species further north

  7. destruction of food webs

New cards
32

Chemoautotrophs

organisms that obtain energy from chemicals to make their own food; Autotrophic bacteria that derive energy from inorganic sulfur compounds; often live in deep-ocean vents

New cards
33

Quadrat Sampling

Using a known small area at random to count organisms within that area. The number of organisms within that area can give an approximate estimate of the population of that particular species in a larger area.

New cards
34

(Line) Transect

use string across a place where you collect data, collect the data of whatever passes the string

New cards
35

Plant/animal distribution

The number of a particular organism in an given area (measured using quadrats and represented either as percentage coverage or organisms per squared area)

New cards
36

limits of tolerance

The range of a particular environmental factor (e.g. temperature, soil pH, elevation, etc) that an organism can survive within

New cards
37

optimal zone

The optimal range of an environmental factor that an organism survives best in

New cards
38

zone of stress

Within the limits of tolerance but the range where the envirnmental factor means an organism is struggling to survive

New cards
39

zone of intolerance

The range of an environmental factor where an organism is unable to survive (e.g. too hot/cold, too salty, not enough oxygen, etc)

New cards
40

Niche concept

The environmental role that and organism plays within its environment

New cards
41

Fundamental Niche

all of the places a species can live if no competition; The entire range of resource opportunities an organism is potentially able to occupy within an ecosystem

New cards
42

Realised/Applied Niche

the actual areas a species tends to occupy due to competition with other organisms in the same area

New cards
43

Competitive exclusion principle

The idea that two organisms can't occupy the exact same niche due to competition

New cards
44

Keystone species

A species that plays an important role in its environment and helps to maintain the biodiversity of the ecosystem

New cards
45

Natality

Birth rate; increases population size as offspring are added to the population

New cards
46

Immigration

Movement of individuals into a population

New cards
47

Emigration

Movement of individuals out of an area.

New cards
48

Mortality

Death rate

New cards
49

Competition

A common demand by two or more organisms upon a limited supply of a resource; for example, food, water, light, space, mates, nesting sites.

New cards
50

Predation

An interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism

New cards
51

Parasitism

A relationship in which one organism lives on or in a host and harms it (+/-)

New cards
52

Mutualism

A relationship between two species in which both species benefit (+/+)

New cards
53

Biomass

-the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.

-A measure of the total dry mass of organisms within a particular region.

New cards
54

Biosphere

The area on and around Earth where life exists.

New cards
55

Biome

A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms.

New cards
56

Invasive Species

species that enter new ecosystems and multiply, harming native species and their habitats

New cards
57

Biomagnification

accumulation of pollutants at successive levels of the food chain; due to inability to excrete pollutants and bioaccumulation

New cards
58

Bioaccumulation

The build up of pollutants in a particular trophic level of a food chain as the pollutants can't be excreted

New cards
59

Primary succession

The series of stages of growth in plant life on newly exposed rock (= bryophata, grasses and small plants, small trees and shrubs, larger trees)

New cards
60

Secondary succession

The series of stages of growth in plant life in an area where the previous ecosystem has been destroyed (e.g. after a fire or clearance for agriculture)

New cards
61

Nutrient cycling

The cyclic systems in which certain elements are exchanged between the biotic and abiotic realms. e.g Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus cycles.

New cards
62

Microplastics

Tiny pieces of plastic that can cause damage to zooplankton and other small aquatic creatures

New cards
63

Macroplastics

Larger pieces of plastic debris that causes problems for large fish and seabirds through ingestion and even strangulation.

New cards
64

Closed systems

Systems where energy can be exchanged but matter can not - e.g. mesocosms

New cards
65

DDT

A pesticide used to kill mosquitoes to control malaria - a good example of the problems caused by biomagnification

New cards
66

Biotic index

A measure of the relative abundance of indicator species to compare pollution or damage to an environment

New cards
67

Biodiversity

The richness, variety and abundance of species in a given ecosystem or habitat

New cards
68

Simpson's diversity index

A way to estimate biodiversity by looking at the relative abundance of species in a given area

New cards
69

Nature reserves

Protected areas of land where building, poaching and and farming are restricted. Usually run by government agencies.

New cards
70

In situ conservation

Protection of species through efforts within the natural habitat of that species

New cards
71

Ex situ conservation

Protecting species away from their natural habitat (e.g. introduction to new areas or zoo breeding programs)

New cards
72

The corridor effect

Pockets of forest or nature reserves will not support biodiversity well unless there are corridors (areas of natural land) connecting them.

New cards
73

The edge effect

Biodiversity is likely to be poorer on the outskirts of nature reserves as the organisms are more prone to influences from outside, e.g. poachers, pollution, etc

New cards
74

transpiration

the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3912 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 120 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 94 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard68 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard115 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard69 terms
studied byStudied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard64 terms
studied byStudied by 3535 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(48)