Unit 2- Animals: Learning Catalytics

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Both fungi and animals are characterized by:

  1. Heterotrophy and internal digestion

  2. Multicellularity and a nervous system

  3. Internal digestion and movement

  4. Multicellularity and movement

  5. Heterotrophy and multicellularity

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Biology

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1

Both fungi and animals are characterized by:

  1. Heterotrophy and internal digestion

  2. Multicellularity and a nervous system

  3. Internal digestion and movement

  4. Multicellularity and movement

  5. Heterotrophy and multicellularity

Option 5:

Heterotrophy and multicellularity

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2

Arthropods have been highly successful, representing the most diverse group of animals on Earth. Which trait likely made the smallest contribution to their success?

  1. A rigid exoskeleton 

  2. Jointed appendages

  3. Waterproofing by chitin

  4. Color of the exoskeleton

  5. Specialization of different appendages

Option 4:

Color of the skeleton

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3

Amphibians are especially vulnerable to pollution, diseases, and other environmental changes because 

  1. they live in isolated habitats found only in tropical regions.

  2. they require moist environments for gas exchange and reproduction.

  3. the loud mating calls of most male anurans (frogs and toads) make them vulnerable to predators.

  4. they are endothermic and thus are more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations than other vertebrates.

Option 2:

They require moist environments for gas exchange and reproduction.

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4

Birds taxonomically belong to: 

  1. Amphibians, closely related to salamanders

  2. Squamates, closely related to snakes

  3. Archosaurs, closely related to crocodilians

  4. Hemichordates, closely related to acorn worms

Option 3:

Archosaurs, closely related to crocodilians

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5

Sponges are aquatic organisms that bring food in through pores using flagella on specialized cells to create an incurrent of water. This specialization, in which cells have different functions within an organism, is an advantage that is not possible in a(n)

  1. larva.

  2. multi-celled organism.

  3. single-celled organism.

  4. organ.

  5. tissue.

Option 3:

Single-celled organism

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6

Which activity would cause a decrease in your hypothalamic temperature set point for metabolic heat production?

  1. Entering a cold environment

  2. Taking an aspirin when you have a fever

  3. Cooling the hypothalamus

Option 2:

Taking an aspirin when you have a fever

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7

The testes release testosterone, and the rising levels of testosterone inhibit its further release. This is an example of:

  1. feedbackward information.

  2. negative feedback.

  3. feedforward information.

  4. positive feedback.

  5. changing the set point.

Option 2:

Negative feedback

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8

Which statement describes the relationship between hibernation and the metabolic rate in a mammal?

  1. The metabolic rate decreases when a biochemical pathway is triggered.

  2. The metabolic rate increases when a biochemical pathway is triggered.

  3. The metabolic rate decreases when tissue and organ temperatures drop below a baseline value.

  4. The metabolic rate increases when tissue and organ temperatures drop below a baseline value.

  5. Hibernation occurs when the metabolic rate increases in a mammal.

Option 1:

The metabolic rate decreases when a biochemical pathway is triggered.

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9

External cues are used as a mechanism for synchronization for biological clocks in plants and animals, even bacteria! If there are no external cues, the biological clock is called _____.

  1. Free-run

  2. Circadian 

  3. Lunar 

  4. Endogenous

Option 1:

Free-run

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10

Where in the human body do inhaled O2 molecules first cross a cell membrane?

  1. When they reach the nostril 

  2. When they reach the cell that requires oxygen

  3. When they reach the simple epithelium lining the lung wall

  4. When they contact the skin

Option 3:

When they reach the simple epithelium lining the lung wall

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11

Tunas are fast swimmers and have high oxygen requirements.

Why can't a tuna simply expend energy and do metabolic work to take up the O2 it needs across its gill membranes?

  1. Active transport of O2 does not exist.

  2. ATP can be used to pump O2 into the body.

  3. O2 has to be transported by osmosis across the gills.

Option 1:

Active transport of O2 does not exist.

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12

If CO2 reacts with water, what effect will this reaction have on the body?

  1. None

  2. Decrease pH

  3. Increase pH

Option 2:

Decrease pH

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13

A grasshopper (Phylum Arthropoda; Class Insecta) has ___________ circulatory system with a fluid called _________ .

  1. open; blood plasma

  2. open; hemolymph

  3. open; hemolymph

  4. closed; extracelullar fluid

  5. closed; interstitial fluid

Option 3:

open; hemolymph

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14

Order these blood vessels in terms of their size (smallest to largest).

  • Capillary 

  • Artery 

  • Arteriole

Capillary  < Arteriole < Artery 

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15

Predict the length of the capillaries in 1cm3 of mammalian skeletal muscle or heart muscle. 

  1. 1 cm

  2. 1 m

  3. 10-30 m

Option 3: 10-30 m

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16

Red blood cells turn over very rapidly in mammals. Guess how many days each red cell circulates in the blood before it is broken down and replaced by a new cell in the bone marrow.

120

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17

Hypertension is a disease characterized by:

  1. Pressure in the blood is low (between 90/60mmHg and 120/60mmHg)

  2. Pressure in the blood is high (140/90mmHg or higher)

Option 2:

Pressure in the blood is high (140/90mmHg or higher)

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18

Let say that you touched a hot pan with your index finger. How fast do you think that the neurons can transmit the signal to your brain?

  1. 20-100 m per second

  2. more than 100 m per second

Option 2:

more than 100 m per second

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19

The extracellular matrix produces molecules that stimulate cell growth across the cell.  This would be an example of which type of cell signaling?

  1. Paracrine

  2. Autocrine

  3. Pheromones

  4. Neurotransmitters

Option 2: Autocrine

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20

Signaling molecules bind to protein receptor molecules on the target cell surface.  Which response would represent a target-cell response?

  1. Electrical signaling between nerve cells in cardiac muscle

  2. Hormones released into the bloodstream 

  3. Pheromones released from a mating pair of rats before reproduction

  4. Paracrines binding to neighboring muscle cells for contraction

Option 4:

Paracrines binding to neighboring muscle cells for contraction

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21

Does the botulinum toxin enhance or inihibit muscle contraction?

  1. Enhances contractions

  2. Inhibits contractions

Option 2: Inhibits contractions

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22

Epinephrine is a water-soluble hormone made of the amino acid tyrosine. Which type of hormone would epinephrine be classified as?

  1. Steroid hormone

  2. Amine hormone

  3. Peptide hormone

  4. Hormone receptor 

Option 2: Amine hormone

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23

It is misleading to call the pituitary gland the "master" gland. Select all the statements that provide evidence for this claim.

  1. "Master" suggests being at the top of a hierarchy of control.

  2. The brain is the "master".

  3. The rates of secretion of all the pituitary's hormones are controlled by the brain.

Options 1, 2, and 3

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24

When animals die, the lack of ATP causes muscles to stiffen in rigor mortis because:

  1. muscles cannot contract without ATP

  2. actin and myosin cannot bind without ATP

  3. actin and myosin cannot separate without ATP

  4. ATP forms cross-bridges between filaments

Option 3:

actin and myosin cannot separate without ATP

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25

Does myasthenia gravis enhance or inihibit muscle contraction?

  1. Enhances contractions

  2. Inhibits contractions

Option 2: Inhibits contractions

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26

Considering what you just learned about gametogenesis, which of these statements is FALSE?

  1. Humans with testes can make sperm throughout their lives.

  2. Females are born with all the eggs they will ever produce.

  3. Prenatal exposure to an environmental agent has the potential to directly impact two generations.

  4. Prenatal exposure to an environmental agent has the potential to directly impact three generations.

Option 3:

Prenatal exposure to an environmental agent has the potential to directly impact two generations.

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27

Blocks to polyspermy serve to:

  1. fuse a haploid sperm with a haploid egg.

  2. prevent the union of an egg and sperm from different species.

  3. guarantee that only one sperm will enter the egg.

  4. metabolically activate the egg.

  5. guide sperm toward the egg.

Option 3:

guarantee that only one sperm will enter the egg.

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28
<p><span>This picture shows female reproductive organs. </span><strong><u>Where does fertilization occurs?</u></strong><span> Point to the regions.</span></p>

This picture shows female reproductive organs. Where does fertilization occurs? Point to the regions.

knowt flashcard image
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29

Levonorgestrel, also known as an emergency contracteptive pill, works by binding to progesterone and androgen receptors, which delay the release of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. This action will: 

  1. Stop the luteinizing hormone surge that occurs pre-ovulation. 

  2. Accelerate the luteinizing hormone surge that occurs pre-ovulation. 

Option 1:

Stop the luteinizing hormone surge that occurs pre-ovulation. 

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30

The sperm contributes _____________ to the zygote.

  1. a haploid nucleus, only

  2. a diploid nucleus, only

  3. half of the mitochondria and a nucleus

  4. a centriole and a nucleus

  5. cilium and a haploid nucleus

Option 4: a centriole and a nucleus

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31

Preimplantation genetic testing is a type of screening for embryos generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF). When the embryo reaches the blastocyst stage, few cells on the outside are biopsed and sent for genetic analyses. What do you expect to happen?

  1. The embryo may lose an important organ, because humans have mosaic development.

  2. The embryo will compensate for the loss of cells, because humans have regulative development.

Option 2:

The embryo will compensate for the loss of cells, because humans have regulative development.

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32

The placenta is composed of:

  1. Tissues from two different organisms: the mother and the offspring

  2. Tissues from the mother

  3. Tissues from the offspring

Option 1:

Tissues from two different organisms: the mother and the offspring

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33

The placenta is composed of:

  1. Tissues from two different organisms: the mother and the offspring

  2. Tissues from the mother

  3. Tissues from the offspring

Option 1:

Tissues from two different organisms: the mother and the offspring

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34

Which statement about innate and adaptive defenses is TRUE?

  1. Defense systems involve recognition of self from nonself.

  2. Innate defenses typically act more slowly than adaptive defenses.

  3. Adaptive defense mechanisms are typically the body's first line of defense.

  4. Antibody proteins are an example of an innate defense.

  5. Innate defenses are called specific defenses.

Option 1:

Defense systems involve recognition of self from nonself.

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35

Which is an innate defense that is your first line of defense against a disease-carrying tick?

  1. Interferons released by infected cells signaling neighboring cells to increase their resistance to the pathogen.

  2. Antibodies that mark the disease organism for destruction.

  3. Skin as a physical barrier.

  4. Proteins that activate an inflammatory response.

  5. Macrophages that phagocytize the pathogen.

Option 3:

Skin as a physical barrier.

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36

Which statement about the Toll-like receptors is TRUE?

  1. They are found in vertebrates but have yet to been found in invertebrates.

  2. They are part of an innate defense response against pathogens.

  3. They bind antibodies.

  4. Binding initiates a cytoplasmic response without a nuclear response. 

Option 2:

They are part of an innate defense response against pathogens.

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37

When a patient comes into a clinic with seasonal allergies, a doctor will often recommend antihistamines. When a person takes antihistamines, they are trying to prevent:

  1. neutrophils from degranulating

  2. associated increases in the permeability of blood vessels.

  3. T cells from producing antibody.

  4. macrophages from completing phagocytosis.

Option 2:

associated increases in the permeability of blood vessels.

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38

An adaptive immune response to a pathogen would include

  1. an increase in lysozyme production.

  2. inflammation at the site of exposure.

  3. increased flow of mucus.

  4. recognition of infected cells by T cells.

  5. phagocytosis of the pathogen.

Option 4:

recognition of infected cells by T cells

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