Bio 112 Test 1

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Composition of a bacterial cell wall

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Biology

73 Terms

1

Composition of a bacterial cell wall

Contains a peptidoglycan; determines the staining response

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2

Bacillus

Rod Shaped

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3

Coccus

Spherical Shaped

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4

Spirillum

Spiral Shaped

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Pilus

external; a structure that links one cell to another at the start of the conjugation

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6

Flagellum

external; microscopic hairlike structure involved in the locomotion of a cell

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7

Capsule

internal;  an outer layer of polysaccharides that covers the cells of bacterial species

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8

Cell wall

internal; the non-living component, covering the outermost layer of a cell

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9

Plasma Membrane

internal; the membrane in cells that separates the interior from the outside

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10

Nucleoid

internal; an irregularly shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material

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Ribosome

internal; an intercellular structure made of both RNA and protein, and it is the site of protein synthesis in the cell

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Plasmid

internal; a small circular DNA molecule found in bacteria and some of microscopic organisms

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13

Transformation

Naked, foreign DNA from the environment is taken up by  bacterial cell

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14

Transduction

Phages carry bacterial genes from one bacterial cell to another

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15

Conjugation

A bacterial cell directly transfers plasmid or chromosomal DNA to another cell via a mating bridge that temporarily connects the two cells

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16

Binary Fission

A form of asexual reproduction in which an organism divides into two, each part carrying one copy of genetic material

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17

Autotroph

Organisms that produce their own food using energy from the sun or from chemical reactions

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18

Heterotroph

Organisms that obtain their food by consuming other organisms or organic matter

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19

Detritivores

 Organisms that obtain their food by consuming dead organic matter

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20

Photoautotroph

Derives its energy from light and derives its carbon from CO2, HCO3 or related compounds

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21

Chemoautotroph

Gets its energy from chemical sources and derives its carbon from CO2, HCO3 or related compounds

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Photoheterotroph

Derives its energy from light and gets its carbon from organic nutrients

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Chemoheterotroph

 Gets its energy from chemical sources and gets its carbon from organic nutrients

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24

Mycoplasma

Walking pneumonia, Bronchitis

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Streptococcus

Strep throat, necrotizing fasciitis, , meningitis, rheumatic fever, scarlet fever

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Mycobacterium

Tuberculosis

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Neisseria

Gonorrhea, Meningococcal meningitis

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Chlamydia

Chlamydia

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Borrelia

Lyme Disease

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Papillomavirus

HPV

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Flavivirus

Dengue, Zika, West Nile fever

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Orthomyxovirus

Influenza

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Retrovirus

HIV/AIDS

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34

Thermophiles

lovers of hot environments

Pyrococcus, Thermus aquaticus

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Halophiles

lovers of saline environments

Halobacterium, Salinibacter, Haloferax

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Methanogens

 Produce methane as a byproduct

Methanobacterium, methanosarcina, methanococcus

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Mutualism

A positive-positive ecological interaction that benefits individuals or both interacting species

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Commensalism

A positive-neutral ecological interaction that benefits the individuals of one species but neither harms nor helps the individuals of the other species

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Parasitism

An organism that feeds on the cell contents, tissues, or body fluids of another species (the host) while in or on the host organism

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40

Pathogen

An organism or virus that causes disease

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41

What disease is caused by Trypanosoma?

Sleeping Sickness

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42

What disease causes malaria?

Plasmodium vivax

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43

Zoomastigophora

Trypanosoma, leishmania, giardia

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44

Rhizopoda

Radiolarians, forams, cercozoans

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Foraminifera

Ammodiscus, Glomospira, Psammosphera

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46

Actinopoda

Classified into radiolaria and heliozoa

Actinophrys sol, Clathrulina elegans, colosseum inerme, thalassicolla nucleata

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Ciliophora

 Paramecium caudatum, tetrahymena thermophila, stentor coeruleus

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Apicomplexa

Plasmodium, toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium

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Chlorophyta

Green algae

Charophytes, chlorophytes, chlamydomonas, sea lettuce

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50

Rhodophyta

Red algae

Dulse (palmaria palmata), Bonnemaisonia hamifera, Nori (porphyra)

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Phaeophyta

Brown algae

Kelp, fucus, sargassum

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Chrysophyta

Golden algae

Chrysococcus, dinobryon, tripartiella

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53

Characteristics of Protists

Include all single-celled eukaryotes; Contain membrane bound organelles; Has a well defined nucleus; Have a cellular level of body organization; Reproduce sexually and asexually; Mode of nutrition is auto and heterotrophic; They move across the environment using secretions or locomotive organelles

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54

Characteristics (and structural makeup) of all Fungi

Have a unique body structure consisting of thin filaments called hyphae that form an interwoven mass called mycelium; Cell walls made of hyphae are strengthened by chitin; Reproduce asexually or sexually by creating spore-producing structures; Can be single-celled or multicellular; Store their food in the form of starch; Heterotrophic, eukaryotic, non-vascular, and non-motile; ZygomycVery small nuclei

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55

Zygomycota

Bread mold, rhizopus, stolonifer

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Ascomycota

Penicillium, yeast, morels, truffles, cup fungi

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Basidiomycota

Mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungi

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Chytridiomycota

Allomyces, synchytrium endobioticum, neocallimastix

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Zygospores (Z)

Zygomycota -  sexual

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Sporangiospores

Zygomycota - asexual

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Ascospores

Ascomycota - sexual

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Conidia (A)

Ascomycota - asexual

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Basidiospores

Basidiomycota - sexual

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Conidia (B)

Basidiomycota - asexual

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65

Zygospores (C)

Chytridiomycota - sexual

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Zoospores

Chytridiomycota - asexual

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67

Lichen Association

Mutualistic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner such as a species of cyanobacteria. Photosynthetic partner provides carbohydrates while the fungus provides anchorage, protection, minerals, and water

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Mycorrhizal Association

Mutualistic association of roots and fungi. The host plant provides the fungus with a steady supply of sugar while the fungus increases the surface area for water uptake and also supplies the plant with phosphorus and other minerals absorbed from the soil

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69

Deuteromycota

Yeast; fungi imperfecti, no sexual stage

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70

Fungal Disease

yeast infection, athlete’s foot.

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71

Supergroups

SAR, Excavata, Unikota, Archaeplastida

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Anaerobes

live in an environment with no oxygen

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Apicomplexa

Pathogenic Group

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