Biology Diversity of Life Exam 4 pt. 1 skin bones circulation

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Biology

105 Terms

1

anatomy

describes physical parts of an organism

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2

physiology

describes the way in which those parts work, alone and in combination

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3

Levels of organisms organization from smallest to largest

cells, tissues, organs, organ systems

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4

tissues

groups of cells performing some specific function

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5

organs

groups of tissues performing one specific function

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organ systems

groups of organs performing some specific function

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7

4 main types of tissues

epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve

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8

most organs are a combination of ______ or more tissues

two

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9

epithelial tissue

serves as covering or lining of various body parts, involved in both absorption of material and secretion of material

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10

squamous cells

flat, found in areas where diffusion is important

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11

cuboidal cells

cubes, into,ved in secretion and absorption

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12

columnar cells

rectangular, used or secretion and absorption

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13

cells can vary in ________

shape

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14

tissues can vary in __________

number of layers

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15

simple epithelium has ___ layer

one

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16

stratified epithelium has _________ layers

two or more, can be different cell types

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17

connective tissue

perform a variety of functions

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18

connective tissue consists of two components

living cells scattered in a non-living matrix secreted by cells

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19

examples of connective tissue

bones, cartilage, adipose, blood, ligaments, tendons

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20

nervous tissue

composed of special cells called neurons that carry electrical impulses, receive stimuli and cause other tissues to organs to respond

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21

three types of muscle tissue

skeletal, cardiac, smooth

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22

Integumentary system

skin, barrier to injury or evasion by other organisms, very large sensory organ, production of body covering (hair), production of various substances, body cooling

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23

epidermis

outermost layer of skin- living epithelial cells towards interior, outer layer of dead cells

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24

dermis

middle layer of skin, contains primarily connective tissue, plus nerves, blood vessels, muscles, sensory organs

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25

hair and gland appear to come from the dermis region but are actually inholdings of the __________

epidermis

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26

hypodermis/subcutaneous

inner layer of skin, mostly a layer of adipose tissue; fusion underlying organs, heat retention

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27

11 organ systems of the human body

integutemary, muscular, skeletal, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive

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28

2 primary skin glands in humans

sweat glands, sebaceous

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29

2 types of sweat glands

eccrine, apocrine

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30

eccrine glands

sweat glands occur over most of body, release a clear fluid, mostly water with dissolved salts

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apocrine glands

sweat glands found mostly in groin, armpits, face, release more viscous and odor-causing fluid

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32

sebaceous gland

release a thicker, oily/waxy fluid called sebum; helps lubricate hair follicles

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33

skeletal system

protection for internal organs, attachment points for muscles

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34

hydrostatic skeleton

body is a fluid filled bag under pressure which animal can push against, ex: roundworm, earthworm

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35

axial skeleton

consists of bones along the midline of the body; includes skull, spinal column, ribcage, sternum

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appendicular skeleton

includes arm bones, leg bones, pelvic girdle, pectoral girdle; everything the axial skeleton does not consist of

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37

3 components of skeleton

bones, cartilage, ligaments

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38

bones

the hardest part of the skeleton

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39

cartilage

more flexible than bone

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40

ligaments

a type of connective tissue linking two bones

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41

tendons link blank to blank

muscles, bones

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42

within the spongy bone of long and flat bones is ___ marrow

red, involved in the production of red blood cells

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43

within the shaft region or long bones is _______ marrow

yellow, mostly fat storage, can be converted to red marrow in emergencies

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44

osteocytes

living cells in bones, found within lucanae

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45

osteons

how osteocytes are arranged, Haversian system

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46

joints

occur where two bones come into contact and can move relative to each other

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47

ligaments ____ bones

link

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48

structural joints

focuses on material bind the joint together; fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

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49

fibrous joints

sutures, only found in the bones of the skull, short connective tissue fibers that are continuous with the periosteum; eventually the junctions ossify and become synostoses

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50

cartilaginous joints

fibrocartilage unites the bones, limited movement at these joints, designed for strength with flexibility

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synovial joints

articulating bones separated by fluid-filled joint cavity, permits freedom of movement, most joints of the body are this type

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three basic types of movements allowed by synovial joints

gliding, angular movements, rotation

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53

gliding movements

occur when flat or nearly flat bones surfaces slip over another, no appreciable angulation or rotation

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54

flexion

decreasing the angle between two articulating bones

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55

extension

opposite of flexion, increasing the angle between two articulating bones

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56

hyperextension

going beyond anatomical position

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57

abduction

moving something away from midline along the frontal plane

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58

adduction

moving something towards the midline along the frontal plane

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59

circumduction

combination movement, circle

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60

rotation

turning of a bone along its own longitudinal axis

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61

functions of the cardiovascular system

transportation of materials throughout body, maintenance of fluid balance, protection against invading organisms

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open circulatory systems

allow circulatory fluid to empty out of vessels

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closed circulatory systems

keep circulatory fluid inside vessels at all times

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64

components of the cardiovascular system

blood, blood vessels, heart

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65

blood

connective tissue which transports material

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blood vessels

tubes of various size which contain blood

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67

heart

muscular pumping organ

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68

plasma

watery fluid that forms matrix of blood, normally about 55% of blood by volume, pH of 7.4

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69

albumin

major protein types; transports lipids, calcum, some wastes

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globulins

major protein types, transport lipids and can act as antibodies

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fibrinogens

major protein types; assist in blood clotting

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formed elements

red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, lack a nucleus and organelles, possess a biconcave shape

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hemoglobin

binds oxygen and carbon dioxide, present in RBCs

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74

plasma makes up ____ of blood

55%

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75

erythrocytes makes up ___ of blood

45%

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Type A blood

erythrocytes with this type surface antigens and plasma with anti-B antibodies

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Type B

erythrocytes with this type surface antigens and plasma with anti-A antibodies

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Type AB

erythrocytes with this type surface antigens and plasma with neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies

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Type O

erythocytes. with this type do not surface antigens with type A or B but plasma with both anti-A and anti-B antibodies

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80

white blood cells

primarily involved in the immune response

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81

platelets

cell fragments and assist in the clotting process

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haemopoiesis

production of blood cells and platelets

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83

arteries

carry blood away from the heart, no exchanges of gases or nutrients occurs between arteries and rest of body, have thick muscle and connective tissue layers

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capillaries

very thin, with only a single layer of tissue, site of exchange with other tissues, itty bitty blood vessels in skin -Caleb

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85

veins

carry blood back to the heart, muscle and connective tissue layers usually thinner than in arteries

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86

The Heart

Muscular pumping organs whose structures differ among animals. In invertebrates, it may often be simply a muscular swelling or a main blood vessel.

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87

Fish

Have a 2 chambered heart

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88

Amphibian

Has a 3 chambered heart

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89

Mammal

has a 4 chambered heart

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90

Atrium

The chamber that receives blood from the lungs and the body. All terrestrial vertebrates have 2 atria, one getting blood from the lungs and one from the rest of the body.

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91

Ventricle

Chamber that pumps blood out to the lungs or the body. The chamber that pumps blood to the rest of the body has thicker walls than the the one that pumps blood to the lungs.

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Atrioventricular Valve (AV Valve)

Separates the the atrium and the ventricle via one-way valves to prevent back flow.

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Right Atrium

receives blood from the body, mainly through the inferior and superior vena cava.

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right ventricle

pumps blood to lungs through the pulmonary artery

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left atrium

gets blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins

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96

left ventricle

pumps blood to the body via the aorta

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97

pacemaker cells

cardiac muscles in the heart that can spontaneously generate their own signal

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98

the basic beat of the heart forms _______ direct involvement of a nerve signal

without

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99

step 1 of electrical signaling in heart

main pacemaker region (sinoatrial node) generates a signal

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100

step 2 of electrical signaling in heart

signal sweeps through both atria and reaches a second pacemaker region the antrioventricular

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