BIOL 1209 Final Exam

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Genetic Equilibrium

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61 Terms

1

Genetic Equilibrium

No change in allele frequency over time. When evolution is not occurring.

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2

Gene Fixation

When you have alleles gained or lost. The total allele frequency level is at 1 or 0. Usually occurs in smaller populations.

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3

Gene Pool

All alleles present in a population at any given time point. Includes dominant, recessive, more fit, less fit, etc.

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4

Gene Flow

the introduction of genetic material (by interbreeding) from one population of a species to another

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5

Fitness

Measures ones ability to survive and have offspring. What natural selection acts upon. Have more offspring = more fit. Have less or no offspring = less fit.

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6

Allele

One representation that could be present in a genotype

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7

Genotype

Genetic representation of expressed alleles

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8

Phenotype

Physical manifestation of the genotype

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9

Hardy-Weinberg

p^2+2pq+q^2=1. Used this to determine null hypothesis in experiment and when evolution is not occurring.

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10

Evolution

The change of allele frequency over time.

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11

Conditions that need to be present for genetic equilibrium

  1. Large population size

  2. no mutation

  3. no gene flow

  4. random mating

  5. no natural selection

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12

Population Ecology

a sub-field of ecology that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment

Measures:

  1. birth rates

  2. death rates

  3. immigration

  4. emigration

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13

Community Ecology

study of the organization and functioning of communities (multiple populations)

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14

Ecosystem Ecology

the integrated study of living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework

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15

Things that affect ecology

Biotic factors: competition, predation, migration, birth rates, death rates

Abiotic factors: light, climate, phosphate levels, nitrogen levels, etc

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16

Population

All individuals that can reproduce together in one area. No inner breeding or mixtures then they are a separate population. Also depends on the breeding seasons. If they have different seasons then that are separate populations.

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Food Web

Producers: make their own food from light

Primary consumers: consume producers (herbivores/ omnivores)

Secondary consumers: consume primary consumers (carnivores/ omnivores)

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18

Decomposer

Decomposes organic material

Ex) Fungi, some protists

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19

Autotroph

absorptive, make their own food

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20

Heterotroph

Ingestive, consume other organisms to gain nutrients

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21

Chemical tests in ecology

Add a chemical to the sample, color change occurs, indicates the levels of phosphorus, nitrogen, etc

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22

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycles

Nitrogen gas being mixed with bacteria

Phosphate stays in lakes once its there, nitrogen cycles more frequently

Natural entrances for nitrogen and phosphate:

nitrogen- soil and air

phosphorus- rocks, pollution

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23

Carrying Capacity

The amount of resources present in environment limits the population growth: food, competitors, etc

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24

Logistic Growth vs Exponential Growth

Logistic: a population's per capita growth rate gets smaller and smaller as population size approaches a maximum imposed by limited resources in the environment

Exponential: the population grows exponentially until it nears the carrying capacity, which is shown by a separate horizontal line. As the population nears the carrying capacity, population growth slows significantly.

<p>Logistic: a population&apos;s per capita growth rate gets smaller and smaller as population size approaches a maximum imposed by limited resources in the environment</p><p>Exponential: the population grows exponentially until it nears the carrying capacity, which is shown by a separate horizontal line. As the population nears the carrying capacity, population growth slows significantly.</p>
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25

Buncher Funnel

Used in chlorophyll acetate test

<p>Used in chlorophyll acetate test</p><p></p>
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26

pH meter

used to measure pH level of a sample

<p>used to measure pH level of a sample</p>
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27

Thermometer

used to measure temperature

<p>used to measure temperature</p>
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28

Secchi Disk

used to measure clarity

<p>used to measure clarity</p>
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29

replica plate

used to stamp E coli

<p>used to stamp E coli</p>
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30

Domains

Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya

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31

Kingdoms

Eubacteria, Archae, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

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32

Parts of Phylogenetic Tree

Root: most recent common ancestor

Branch: passing of generational time

Nodes: on individual splits into two based off of genetic difference

<p>Root: most recent common ancestor</p><p>Branch: passing of generational time</p><p>Nodes: on individual splits into two based off of genetic difference</p>
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33

Trends of complexity

Vasculature in plants: as they evolve there is most vasculature (review with practice exercise and know each vasculature system with each organism)

tissue layer in animals: an inner layer (endoderm), an outer layer (ectoderm), and a middle layer (mesoderm). Animals with three tissue layers are called triploblasts.

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34

homologous

having the same relation, relative position, or structure

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35

analogous

comparable in certain respects, typically in a way which makes clearer the nature of the things compared

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36

Hypothesis

a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation

Made of three parts: Independent variable, Dependent Variable, how it is Statistically significant or not

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37

R^2

Correlation coefficient, how closely points on a scatterplot best fit to a line

Higher than .35- more closely related

Lower than .35- less related or random points (outliers)

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38

Standard deviation

the variation in data points. More spread out will equal higher standard deviation, points closer together will equal lower standard deviation

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Independent Variable

a variable (often denoted by x ) whose variation does not depend on that of another

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Dependent Variable

a variable (often denoted by y ) whose value depends on that of another

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41

Parts of the Lab Report

Introduction

Methods

Results (graphs, captions, trends paragraph)

Discussion

know what type of information should go into each section and what tense each section should be written in

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42

APA Citation

General format for in text citing: (First Author last name, year).

  • One author:  (Last name, year)

  • Two authors: (Last name 1 & Last name 2, year)

  • Three or more authors: (Last name 1 et al., year)

References

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article.  Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy

be able to decipher if a citation is correct or not for test

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43

Primary resources vs peer reviewed articles

Primary resources- immediate, first-hand accounts of a topic, from people who had a direct connection with it

Peer Review- the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work

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44

Parts of Microscope

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45

How to make a stock plate

  1. apply (pipet) e coli onto plate

  2. grows into colonies

  3. stamp plates to make replicates

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46

Pop G

How the different parameters can affect the outcome of the population.

Examples)

smaller population = genetic fixation

make a certain allele more fit then there will be an accumulation of the gene over time

experiment with Pop G to remember different outcomes

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47

Bean Exercise Calculations

# of beans with certain allele/ #of total beans within that population= % of that allele that was expressed

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How PopG and Bean exercise was related

They were related because both are calculating the same thing, but PopG can calculate it more rapidly for multiple generations

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49

General Lab Safety

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50

What technique was used for E Coli stock plates?

Replica plating

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51

What type of environments would you find Archaea?

Extreme environments (Volcanos, extreme salt or acidic environments)

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52

What is the phyla of green algae?

Chlorophyta

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53

What vascular structures in plants can withhold extreme environments?

The cortical bundle is a vascular system which allows the transportation of water and nutrients

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54

Do individuals evolve?

No, only populations

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55

Do dominant alleles have a higher fitness?

No, both alleles have the potential to have a higher fitness. It is dependent on the environment.

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56

Does natural selection act on the genotype?

No, it acts on the phenotype.

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57

Why do we use a computer simulation to test evolution?

It takes too long to physically test it.

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58

A species needs _______ to respond to its environment?

Variation

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59

How could you introduce variation to a population?

Mutation and migration

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60

How are alleles lost?

Small population creates genetic fixation

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61

Why did we use Chlamydomonas for our experiment?

Can reproduce rapidly, photosynthetic, does cost much, easy to measure

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