Unit 5 Vocab: Long Version

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Psychology

84 Terms

1

memory

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

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recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieval information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test

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recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test

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4

relearning

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for the second time

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5

encoding

the processing of information into the memory system- for example, by extracting meaning

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6

storage

the retention of encoded information over time

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7

retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage

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8

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

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9

short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten

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10

long-term potentiation

an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

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11

long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

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12

working memory

a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

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13

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare" (also known as declarative memory)

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14

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

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15

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings

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16

Implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection. Because of experience, you recall it without much effort. (Also known as non-declarative or procedural memory)

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17

Iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

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18

Echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

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19

Chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units,; often occurs automatically

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20

mnemonics

memory aid, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

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21

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

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22

shallow processing

Processing information based on its surface characteristics

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23

deep processing

Processing information with respect to its meaning

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24

semantic memory

general information about the world even if you haven't experienced it

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25

episodic memory

memories of one's past, personal experiences

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26

hippocampus

long term memory, part of the limbic system

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27

flashbulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

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28

Priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response

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29

Mood-congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

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30

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

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31

anterograde amnesia

loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused amnesia

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32

retrograde amnesia

loss of memory before the events that caused the amnesia

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33

proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

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34

Retroactive interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

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35

Misinformation effect

incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event

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36

source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source of an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. This and misinformation effect. is at the heart of many false memories

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37

cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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38

Concept

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

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39

Prototype

a mental image or best example of a category

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40

creativity

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

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41

convergent thinking

looks at obtaining one solution to a problem, less creative, one problem = one solution

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42

divergent thinking

more often associated with creativity and creative thinking because it seeks to find several different solutions to the same problem.

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43

algorithm

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees to solve a particular problem. Contracts with the usually speedier but also more error-prone-use of heuristics

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44

heuristic

a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms

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45

Insight

a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions

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46

Confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

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47

Fixation

the inability to see a problem from a different perspective, by employing a different mental set. According to Freud, a lingering focus on pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

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48

Mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

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49

Representativeness heuristic

judging the likelihood of an event in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information

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availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common

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51

Overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements

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belief perseverance

clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

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Framing

the way an issue is prosed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments

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54

language

our spoken, written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

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Phoneme

in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

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morpheme

in language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix)

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Telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram- "go car"- using mostly nouns and verbs

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grammar

in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others

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59

Aphasia

impairment of language, damage to the left or right hemispheres of the brain

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60

Broca's area

controls language expression- an area usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involving speech

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61

linguistic determinism

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think

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Linguistic influence

the idea that language affects thought

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63

Intelligence

mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

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64

general intelligence (g)

a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

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65

factor analysis

a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score

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66

savant syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exception specific skill (ex. drawing)

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67

grit

a personality trait characterized by perseverance and passion for achieving long-term goals.

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68

emotional intelligence

the ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions

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69

intelligence test

a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores

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70

achievement test

tests designed to assess what a person has learned

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71

aptitude test

tests designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn

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72

mental age

a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance

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73

stanford-binet

the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test

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74

Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (IQ = (ma/ca) *100); on contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100

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75

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests

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76

standardization

defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group

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77

reliability

the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on 2 halves of the test, or on retesting

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78

validity

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is suppose to

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79

content validity

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

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80

predictive validity

also called Criterion-Realted validity;the success which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores the criterion behavior

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81

crystallized intelligence

our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

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82

fluid intelligence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

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83

Cross-sectional study

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

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84

longitudinal study

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

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