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Hint

1

What does the Kinetic Molecular Theory describe?

Describes the motion of gasses

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2

What do gasses consist of?

Small particles that exhibit certain behavior

Move rapidly with high velocities(speeds)

Have very small attractive/repulsive forces between molecules

Act like they’re alone

Occupy a much larger volume than the volume of the atoms alone

Are in constant motion, moving rapidly in straight lines

When they hit the container walls, they exert force

Have a Kevin temperature proportionate to the average kinetic energy of the molecules

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3

Kelvin temperature increases, kinetic energy ________

Kelvin temperature increases, kinetic energy *increases*

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4

What are the relating factors of gas (that we talked ab) and what are their abbreviations?

Temperature = T

Pressure = P

Volume = V

Amount of Gas = n

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5

Volume of a gas

The space occupied by a gas

Same as volume of container

Increases w/ an increase in temperature at constant pressure

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6

What units are used for volume of a gas?

Liters (L) or Milliliters (mL)

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7

Temperature of a gas

The determining factor of the kinetic energy of gas particles

Average kinetic energy of molecules (motion/speed → velocity)

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8

What units are used for temperature of a gas?

Kelvin; others may be given but use K for all math

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9

What happens when temperature is decreased vs increased? (molecule motion)

Increased: Molecules have more collisions

Decreased: Molecules have less collisions

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10

Pressure of a gas

The force exerted by a gas against the walls of the container

Force per unit area of surface area

Measure of the gas particle collisions with the sides of the container

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11

What units are used for pressure of a gas?

mm of mercury = mmHg or Torr (same value)

atmospheres = atm

pascals Pa or kilopascals

pounds per square inch Psi

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12

atm → mmHg or Torr conversion

1 atm = 760 mmHg/Torr

Exact

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13

What do gas particles in the air around us exert?

atmospheric pressure

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14

What is the air we breathe?

A mixture of gasses

21% oxygen

78% nitrogen

1% other gasses

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15

Barometer

Measures the pressure exerted by the gasses in the atmosphere

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16

How does a barometer work?

Using a dish of liquid mercury, place a tube on top of it and the air pressure will cause the liquid to fill the tube

Indicates atmospheric pressure as the height in mm of the mercury column

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17

What units does a barometer use?

mmHg/Torr

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18

Who invented the barometer?

Evangelista Torricelli

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19

What is the atmospheric pressure at sea level?

1 atm

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20

Atmospheric Pressure

The pressure exerted by a column of air from the top of the atmosphere

Decreases as altitude increases

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21

What affects the atmospheric pressure? Examples.

Variations in weather and altitude

Mountain = higher up = more altitude, less atm

Hot sunny day = higher pressure = mercury column rises

Cold rainy day = less pressure = mercury column falls

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22

What does Boyle’s Law state?

The pressure of a gas is inversely related to it’s volume when T is constant

The product P x V is constant when temperature and amount of gas is held constant

If the volume decreases, the pressure increases

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23

Formula for Boyle’s Law

P₁V₁ = P₂V₂

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24

Why does Boyle’s Law work?

As the pressure on a gas increases, the volume of the gas decreases because the gas particles are forced closer together. Conversely, as the pressure on a gas decreases, the gas volume increases because the gas particles can now move farther apart.

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25

Boyle’s Law → Breathing

Inhalation

Lungs expand = lung volume increase

Lung pressure decreases

Air flows toward lower pressure in the lungs

Diaphragm contracts → moves down

Exhalation

Lungs contract = lung volume decrease

Lung pressure increases

Air flows from the higher pressure in the lungs to the outside

Diaphragm relaxes → moves up

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26

List the scientific notation equivalence of

Kilo

Deci

Centi

Milli

Micro

Kilo = 10³

Deci = 10⁻¹

Centi = 10⁻²

Milli = 10⁻³

Micro = 10⁻⁶

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27

What does Charles’s Law state?

The Kelvin temperature is directly related to volume

Pressure and amount of gas (moles) are constant

When the temperature of a sample increases, it’s volume increases, at a constant pressure

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28

What is the formula for Charles’s Law

V₁/T₁ = V₂/T₂

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29

Why does Charles’s Law work?

The molecules' kinetic energy increases and they start to vibrate more and move around further from each other, therefore accounting for an increase in volume.

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30

What does Gay-Lussac’s Law state?

The pressure exerted by a gas is directly related to the Kelvin temperature of the gas

Volume and amount of gas are constant

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31

What is the formula for Gay-Lussac’s Law?

P₁/T₁ = P₂/T₂

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32

Why does Gay-Lussac’s Law work?

If we increase the temperature of a gas sample, the particles will move faster. They hit the container walls with more pressure and more often.

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33

What does Avogadro’s Law state?

The volume of a gas is directly related to the number of moles of gas

Temperature and pressure are constant

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34

What is the formula for Avogadros’s Law?

V₁/n₁ = V₂/n₂

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35

Why does Avogadro’s Law work?

If you increase the pressure of a system at equilibrium (typically by reducing the volume of the container), the stress will best be reduced by reaction that favors the side with the fewest moles of gas, since fewer moles will occupy the smallest volume.

Decreased volume

**shifts the system to the side of the reaction that has fewer moles of gas**.

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36

Which of the laws will form a linear graph?

All except Boyle's

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37

If both values for a problem are given in °C, should you use °C?

or if the question is asking for °C

No, all math must be done in Kelvin, so convert

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38

Vapor Pressure

When liquid molecules with sufficient kinetic energy break away from the surface of a liquid, they become vapor

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39

What happens to liquid in a closed vs open container?

Open: All the liquid will eventually evaporate

Closed: The vapor accumulates and creates pressure called vapor pressure

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40

What is vapor pressure in terms of equillibrium?

When the entering condensation rate is equal to the exiting evaporation rate

Constant pressure

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41

Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point

A liquid

The liquid exerts its own vapor pressure at a given temperature

It boils when the vapor pressure is equal to the external pressure (atmospheric pressure)

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42

Altitude and Boiling Point

At high altitudes

Atmospheric pressure is lower than 1 atm/760 mmHg

The boiling point of water is less than 100° Celcius

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43

Altitude and Boiling Point

In a closed container such as a pressure cooker

A pressure greater than 1 atm/760 mmHg can be obtained

Water boils at a higher temperature than 100° Celcius

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44

Combined Gas Laws Formula

P₁V₁/T₁ = P₂V₂/T₂

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45

When using the combined gas laws should you cross multipy?

No, instead simply each side and use algebra to solve

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46

Standard Temperature and Pressure

Allows the volumes of gasses to be compared at a specific temperature and pressure

Ideal gasses will all have the same volume

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47

What is the temperature and pressure for STP?

Temperature: 0°C = 273 K

Pressure: 1atm = 760 mmHg

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48

What is the molar volume of a gas at STP roughly equal to?

The volume of 3 basketballs

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49

At STP, Mole → L conversion

What is it called?

1 mole = 22.4 L

Molar volume

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50

Ideal Gas Law Formula

PV = nRT

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51

What is R in the Ideal Gas Law?

The constant

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52

What are the units for each when using the Ideal Gas Law?

Volume

Temperature

Amount of gas

Pressure

Volume = Liters (L)

Temperature = Kelvin

Amount of gas = Moles

Pressure = atm OR mmHg

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53

What is the R constant when pressure is in atm vs in mmHg

Atm = 0.0821

mmHg = 62.4

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54

What does the Ideal Gas Law do?

Closely approximates the behavior of real gasses at typical conditions

Real gasses show some deviations in behavior though

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55

Partial Pressure

The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure that each gas in a mixture would exert if it were by itself in the container

Gas molecules don’t affect each other and act like they’re alone

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56

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure

Pressure depends on the total number of gas particles not the type of particles

The total pressure exerted by gasses in a mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of gasses

P(total) = P₁ + P₂ + P₃ +…

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57

Total Pressure

At STP

1 mole of pure gas in a volume of 22.4 L will exert the same pressure as 1 mole of a gas mixture in 22.4 L

1 atm of N₂ = 1.0 atm

0.4 mol O₂. + 0.6 mole He = 1.0 atm

0.5 mol O₂. + 0.3 mole He + 0.2 mole Ar = 1.0 atm

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58

Atmospheric Pressure

In terms of partial pressure

The sum of the partial pressures of the gasses in the air

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