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NEW ENGLAND colonies

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NEW ENGLAND colonies

Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut

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MID-ATLANTIC colonies

New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware

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CHESAPEAKE colonies

Virginia, Maryland

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SOUTH ATLANTIC colonies

North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia

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Massachusetts Bay Colony

(Mass + New Hampshire) -tight-knit farming communities -voting rights based on church membership -Great Migration (1630-1642)

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Pennsylvania

-founded by William Penn (quaker) -quakers= very religiously tolerant -LARGEST COLONY

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Jamestown, Virginia

-first settlement -craftsmen -tobacco

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Maryland

-founded by the Calverts (religious aristocratic fam) -rivalry w/ Virginia (Catholic vs. Protestant)

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North Carolina

-former Virgina colonists -economy= farming, tar, pitch, masts, turpentine -poor colony (poor harbors, non-navigable rivers)

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Georgia

-buffer between South Carolina and Spanish Florida -"worthy poor" / debtors

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Enlightenment in America

-stressed power of human thought and reason -movement towards education -beginning of rational christianity

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rational christianity

-God's greatest gift to human was reason

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Great Awakening

-evangelism -"new birth" by conversion -scaring people into converting (George Whitefield)

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Bacon's Rebellion

-nathaniel bacon -mob uprising burned Jamestown -indentured servants and enslaved peoples working w/ him -LEGISLATIVE DISCRIMINATION (I.S. get land/$, E.P. "hereditary slavery)

In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon led a group of army volunteers that raided Native American villages, fought the governor's forces, and set fire to Jamestown. The rebellion was caused by the Governor's unfair favoritism of large plantation owners and refusal to protect small farms from Native American raids. (p. 29)

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Slavery in Chesapeake colonies

-plantations with less than 20 other workers -master's scrutiny -lot more harsh than lower south

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Slavery in Lower South

-large plantations with 50+ other workers -arduous rice work -task system

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Stono Rebellion

-largest slave revolt of colonial period -100 Africans seized arms and killed white neighbors -south carolina

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Spanish in America

-Mexico, California, SW U.S., Florida -Catholic -Conquistadors and priests -conquest and labor (encomienda) -mission settlements -few colonists -evangelism -"follow me"

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French in America

-Canada, Mississippi, Louisiana River region -Catholic -Fur traders and priests -fur trade -trading post settlements -few colonists -evangelism -"lead me"

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Dutch in America

-New York ("New Netherland") -Protestant -Fur traders and settlers -fur trade -trading post settlements -some colonists -no evangelism -"follow me"

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English in America

-Atlantic Coast, Canada -Protestant -settlers and religious dissidents -agriculture and trade -town and farm settlements -many colonists -no evangelism -"get out of my way"

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NEW ENGLAND (people/economy)

people: -puritans and pilgrims

economy: -farming (subsistence)

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MID-ATLANTIC (people/economy)

people: -quakers -dutch (diverse)

economy: -fur trade

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CHESAPEAKE (people/economy)

people: -Catholic (Calverts) -Protestant -craftsmen/aristocrats -indentured servants and enslaved peoples

economy: -tobacco plantations

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SOUTH-ATLANTIC (people/economy)

people: -former virginians, S. Carolinians -"worthy poor"

economy: -farming -tar pitch, masts, turpentine -trade

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Columbian Exchange

transfer of goods, people, and diseases between Europe, the Americas, and Africa (through the exploitations, enslavement, and murder of the IP of N. America and Africa by the Spanish)

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Columbian Exchange: Spain to Americas

  • people (conquistadors, explorers, missionaries)

  • animals (horses, hogs)

  • disease (smallpox)

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Columbian Exchange: Africa to Americas

  • people (enslaved Africans)

  • goods (oranges, lemons, bananas)

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Columbian Exchange: Americas to Spain

  • people (enslaved IPs and Africans)

  • goods (crops, gold, silver, $)

  • disease (syphilis)

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encomienda system

a form of forced and unpaid labour used by Spanish authorities and settlers in the colonies of the Spanish Empire. In return, the laborers were given military protection and the opportunity to be converted to Christianity.

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Metacom's/King Philip's War

From 1675 to 1676, the American Indian chief Metacom (King Philip), waged a vicious war against the English settlers in southern New England.

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Describe why the English and Native Americans traded with each other early during colonization. What led to the end of this trade?

The English were clueless in the Americas and they were mutually useful. The English way of life was not cohesive to the Native’s (letting their livestock roam free, fencing in Native land), and was inter-Native conflict due to trade (bc men were hunting so much, they devoted less time to ag, which upset gender balances; inter-tribal warfare over best hunting grounds to be able to trade w/ Europeans)

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Describe the impact of King Phillip’s, or Metacom’s, War. Why did both sides view it with such importance?

Nearly ended British settlement in New England– very violent on both sides / high death toll. IPs saw European colonization as a threat to their way of life, and sought to protect it. To the English, the war threatened their mission of securing converts to Christianity.

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Compare the interactions that the colonists of the Chesapeake and New England colonies had with Native Americans.

Chesapeake settlers’ main goal was to make money for their parent country. Conversely, in New England, they wanted to convert IPs and ended up being much more brutal. Both used the “get out of my way” method. In both regions they initially had trade, but it eventually dissolved into conflict.

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This European country controlled the American South/South East. Utilized “Follow me”

Spain

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This European country controlled area along the Mississippi River. Utilized “Lead Me”

French

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This European country colonized in the American Northeast. Utilized “Follow Me”

Dutch

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The 3 areas involved in the transatlantic trade are?

Eastern N. America + Caribbean, Western Africa, Europe

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One reason that the British had a tough time enslaving the I.P.s of N. America

Natives knew the land better

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The Journal of this person described what the Transatlantic voyage was like for slaves from Africa

Olaudah Equiano

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This British colonial region contained Virginia and Maryland. Founded by craftsmen looking to make a profit

Chesapeake

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This British colonial region was founded by Puritans. Contained the Massachusetts Bay colony and New Hampshire

New England

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This British colonial region contained the Carolinas and Georgia. Was characterized by generally poorer farmers and craftsmen

South Atlantic

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People from Europe who worked under a master for a certain number of years

Indentured Servants

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This event was an uprising by slaves and I.S. and frightened Virginia plantation owners

Bacon's Rebellion

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The response by Virginia’s plantation owners to Bacon’s Rebellion

Legislated Discrimination

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This period brought about religious change and created Rational Christians

Enlightenment

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This historical development was categorized impassioned sermons and vivid descriptions of hell

Great Awakening

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Spurred by the Great Awakening, many christians began trying to spread religion, called this

Evangelism

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