Geol Exam 1

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87 Terms
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hazard

A natural process and event that is a potential threat to human life and property

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disaster

Hazards event that occurs over a limited time span within a defined area

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Catastrophe

a massive natural disaster that requires significant time and money for recovery

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Internal Processes

results of internal forces/ energy deep within the earth

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Internal Processes Examples

Earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis

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External Processes

Results of external forces, such as atmospheric or gravity, energy from the sun

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External Processes Examples

Extreme weather, storms, climate chance, subsidence, and floods etc.

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Natural Hazards take an average of ____ every year over the last 20 years

80,000

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Hazards cost United States between __ to ___ billion dollars annually

10 to 50

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5 fundamental concepts

1. Science helps us predict hazards. 2. Knowing hazard risks can help people make decisions. 3. Linkages exist between natural hazards 4. Humans can turn disastrous events into catastrophes 5. Consequences of hazards can be minimized.

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Environmental Unity

one action causes other in a chain of actions and events.

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Prediction

Needs to state exactly where and when the event will happen, with enough specifics to be useful for response planning purposes.

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Forecast

an estimation of how certain they are that their forecast will be accurate (probability information)

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Rise=

(probability of event)x (consequences)

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Acceptable Risk

the amount of risk that an individual or society is willing to take

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Impacts of hazards depend on

Magnitude, frequency, other factors

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Magnitude

amount of energy released

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frequency

interval between occurrences

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Magnitude-frequency concept

Frequency of an event inversely related to magnitude Natural events with a moderate energy magnitude and more frequency => the most important shapers of events

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Geology is the study of

the solid earth, which includes the materials that make up the planet and the various events that shape it.

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Hypotheses

An untested, proposed explanation for facts or observations

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Theory

Results from the survival of extensive examination of competing hypotheses relates to the topic

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Principal or Law

Summaries of many experimental results and observations

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Population of the planet

7.7 billion

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Population of the United States

332 Million

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Population of Texas

29 Million

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Population ageing is a

Shift in the distribution of a country's populations towards older ages It is reflected in an increasing median age in a population as declining birth rate and rising longevity (ave. age)

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Rate of Natural Increase (r) =

Birth Rate (b) – Death Rate (d) ; r = b – d

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Rapid growth of population results in problems with maintaining:

Water supplies for irrigation, drinking, and industry Land is clearly a basic resource as well, farmland to produce crops to feed a hungry earth, (also manufacturing, transportation) Food production is an energy-intensive business Supply of energy and minerals for our material-based lifestyle (life quality) Pollution of air, land, and water pursuing

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The solar system formed about

4.6 billion yrs ago

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The Big bang theory

the dominant scientific theory about the origin and evolution of the universe (12 to 15 billion years ago)

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Types of planets in our solar system

8 total

Four rocky and metallic inner planets(Innermost planets very hot, nearest the Sun)

Four gaseous outer planets (Outer planets very cold)

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Differentiation

dense materials, like metallic iron, would have tended to sink toward the middle of the earth. As cooling progressed, lighter, low-density minerals crystallized and floated out toward the surface

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Types of energy sources

Earth’s internal heat (Plate Tectonics) Gravity The Sun, solar radiation Impact of extraterrestrial bodies

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The center of the earth is (tempature)

12,000 F

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Where does the heat come from

Original Heat from formation Radioactive Decay of isotopes in the mantle and crust

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Geological Cycle

a collective term used to describe the complex interactions between the component sub-cycles:

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Sub-cycles of the geological cycle

  1. Tectonic cycle

  2. Rock cycle

  3. Hydrologic cycle

  4. Biogeochemical cycle

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Tectonic Cycle

the large-scale geologic processes that deform Earth's crust and produce landforms such as ocean basins, continents, and mountains.

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Tectonic cycle involves

the creation, movement, and destruction of tectonic plates

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Internal Structure of Earth

Divided into distinct layers based on chemical and mechanical properties. Consequence of differentiation of the early Earth (density) Most knowledge of the earth’s interior by seismic studies

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P waves

fastest, gases, liquids and solids (all phases)

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S Waves

higher amplitude, only through solids

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crust

Thin rocky, outer shell of the planet. Oceanic and Continental

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Mantle

Solid Rock Layer between the crust and the core. It has 2,885 km thick, and the mantle is 82% of the earth's volume (Iron-magnesium-silicates)

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Core

an iron rich sphere with a radius of 3,471 km, mostly metallic iron, high temperature (sun surface) (Size of moon but hot as sun)

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The outer core is

Liquid

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The Inner Core is

Solid

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The inner core is solid because

it is made of very dense, or heavy materials, like iron. Even though it is very hot, these materials don't "melt" very easily, so they stay solid.

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Lithosphere

outmost and rigid layer

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Asthenosphere

hot and slowly flowing layer (soft plastic)

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Mesosphere

below asthenosphere, bounded by increasing of seismic velocity (stiff plastic).

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Liquid outer core

temperature and pressure are so balanced that the iron is molten and exists as a liquid.

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Solid Inner Core

The solid center of the Earth (solid).

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Divergent

Plates move apart New lithosphere created

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Convergent

Plates move together Lithosphere recycled

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Transform

Plates slide past each other

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The tectonic cycle is responsible for

hazards, such as volcanoes and earthquakes.

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Rock Cycle

a group of changes between igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphic rocks. It is also the largest of the geologic sub cycles, and it is linked to all the other sub cycles.

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Karst

limestone is composed of Calcite (CaCO3) which will dissolve in carbonic acid to form collapses succulent as sink holes

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Shales

are composed if fine particles. Landslides hazards are easy to occur in shales

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Clay

(smecite) can swell a lot when met water (subsidence, seal the well)

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Three Families of rocks

Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic

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Igneous Rocks

Formed from molten rock material, two types: Intrusive and Extrusive

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Ignis

Fire

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Intrusive Igneous Rocks

Magma, Coarse

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Extrusive Igneous Rocks

Lava, Fine Grains, Frozen in disordered state

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sedimentary rock form from

weathered pieces of pre-existing rocks into smaller pieces (sediments) by direct precipitation from aqueous solutions

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Meta

Change

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Morph

Shape or Form

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Metamorphic Rocks

Rocks that have undergone a physical and/or chemical change from its original from (phytolith) to adapt to changing pressure, temperature, and chemical conditions in the solid state

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Hydrological Cycle:

Describes the continuous movements of water on, above and bellow the surface of the earth

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Hydrological Cycle is driven by

solar energy: the cycle operates by a way of evaporation, precipitation, surface runoff, and subsurface flow, and water is stored in different compartments along the way.

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Evaporation is the process

whereby solar energy releases water molecules directly from free water surfaces. Water vapor is the result.

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Transpiration

the process that plants pump water into air

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Evapotranspiration =

Evaporation + Transpiration

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Precipitation

water falling from the atmosphere to the earth

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Infiltration

the downward entry of water into the soil (events during precipitation

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Runoff

the portion of rainfall which flows through the rivers, streams etc.

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Primary reason for river flooding

Runoff

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Biogeochemical cycle

the transfer or cycling of a chemical element or elements through the atmosphere (the layer of gases surrounding Earth), lithosphere (Earth's rocky outer layer), hydrosphere (oceans, lakes, rivers, and groundwater), and biosphere (the part of the Earth where life exists).

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Largest element Cycles

Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Nitrogen (N) Oxygen (O) Phosphorus (P) Sulfur (S)

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photosynthesis

Carbon moves from the atmosphere to plants

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food chain

Carbon moves from plants to animals

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