Tissues and Integument

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Name the four types of tissues and their general function

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Name the four types of tissues and their general function

  1. Muscular (movement)

  2. Epithelial (covering/lining)

  3. Nervous (control)

  4. Connective (support)

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How is epithelial tissue classified

CELL LAYERS -Simple, stratified, pseudostratified

SHAPE -Squamous, cuboidal, columnar

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Is epithelial tissue vascular or avascular

Avascular, lack of blood vessels

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What are the three surfaces of epithelial cells

Apical - upper part of cell, exposed to outside of body/the cavity its lining Lateral - side of cell Basal - attached to basement membrane (made up of mostly collagen) which holds cell and attaches it to connective tissues

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What does it mean if an epithelial tissue cell is pseudostratified

Looks like it has multiple layers, but only has one

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What are some characteristic of connective tissue

-most abundant by weight -usually well vascularized

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What are some functions of connective tissue

  • binding and support (produces structural proteins like elastin and collagen)

-protection against infection (blood is a connective tissue - WBC)

-Tissue repair (any vascularized tissue is capable of self repair as it easily rcvs nutrients, that's how bones repair themselves)

-Insultation - fat is a connective tissue

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What are connective tissue cells surrounded by

ECM = extra cellular matrix

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What is the extra cellular matrix of connective tissue composed of

Ground substance + fibers (collagen/elastin, etc)

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What are the 4 properties of ground substance

Fluid, semi-fluid, gelatinous, or calcified

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What are the four classes of connective tissue

1 Connective tissue proper (loose and dense) 2 Cartilage 3 Bone 4 Blood

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What is the predominant cell type in Bone tissue + its ground substance

Osteocytes (calcified GS)

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What is the predominant cell type in Connective tissue proper LOOSE + its ground substance

Adipocytes (semi fluid GS)

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What is the predominant cell type in Cartilage tissue + its ground substance

Chondrocytes (gelatinous GS)

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What is the predominant cell type in Blood tissue + its ground substance

Red blood cells/erythrocytes (fluid GS)

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What is the predominant cell type in Connective tissue proper DENSE + its ground substance

Fibroblasts (not a lot of GS)

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What are some examples of how skin can be an indicator of disease

Colour of the skin can indicate clinical conditions:

Cyanotic (blue) - lack of blood oxygen (hypoxemia)

Jaundiced/Icteric (yellow) - Liver dysfunction - buildup of bilirubin waste, when RBC get old and must be removed from bloodstream and broken down in the liver, one aspect of hemoglobin remains and is extracted thru liver --> GI tract (liver issue = bilirubin can't get out)

Erythema (red) - Heat infection, allergic rxn (blood travels to where it needs to heal)

Pallor (white) - shock (loss of blood) Anemia (not making enough RBC) Peripheral vasoconstriction (when body is too cold, it diverts blood away from skin to heat core temp)

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What are the layers of the skin

Epidermis + dermis which sit on the Hypodermis (SQ layer below the cutaneous skin)

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Name the 5 strata of the Epidermis

(highest to lowest) Corneum (horny layer) Lucidum (only in thick skin) Granulosum (living dead layer) Spinosum (spiny) Basale (germinativum)

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Acronym : C(come) L(lets) G(get) S(sun) B(burned)

To remember the strata of the epidermis Corneum, Lucidum, Granulosum, Spinosum, Basale

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What stratum is present in thick skin but not in thin skin

Lucidum (only found in the soles of your feet and palms of your hands)

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What are the 4 cell types of the Epidermis

Keratinocytes (produces keratin, most prominent cell)

Langerhans (found in stratum SPINOSUM, immune cells)

Melanocyte (Found in stratum BASALE w spindles that deposit melanin in stratum spinosum, protects Keratin against UV rays)

Merkel (detects fine touch, found in stratum BASALE)

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What is the role of Keratin

Provide protection against heat Protects against external abrasion Barrier to microbes (as there are no breaks b/w cells)

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What is the significance of epidermal ridges

Improves your grip and increases surface area of epidermis

Internal epidermal pegs + dermal papillas increase contact b/w dermis and epidermis (like a zipper)

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What is the purpose of melanin and what produces it

Protect keratin/the germinal layer against UV rays Produced by melanocytes (we all have the name # of these but they produce diff amts of melanin in each person)

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What are the 2 types of melanin

Pheomelanin (yellow/red hue) Eumelanin (brown/black hue)

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Why does tanning darken your skin?

Dna in Keratinocytes start to become damaged/denatured due to increased UV rays --> produces melanocyte stimulating hormone --> tells melanocytes to start producing more melanin --> skin darkens

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What is skin tone an expression of

3 pigments

  1. Melanin (mostly this) - yellow/red + brown/black

  2. Carotene (vitamin a) - yellow/orange

  3. Hemoglobin (in blood) - red

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List some examples of melanocyte alterations

  • ALBINISM - no melanin produced (production off due to mutation)

  • FRECKLES - concentrations of melanocytes produce a lot of melanin in certain areas

  • VITILIGO - autoimmune disorder (adapted immune cells see melanocytes as foreign bodies)

  • MELANOMA - cancerous moles (developed from benign nevi/moles)

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What are the features of Benign Nevi vs Malignant Melanomas

ABCDE of malignant melanoma asymmetry, border (irregular), colour, diameter, evolving

Nevi/moles (benign) are symmetrical, have regular circular borders, are one colour, diameter less than 6mm, and not changing

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What is the structure and function of the dermis

-deeper than epidermis

-binds epidermis to underlying tissues (hypodermis, which sits on skeletal muscle attached to the skeleton)

-had abundance of collagen/elastin (secreted by fibroblasts) to support skin

-is the location of blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, and skin glands

-divide into papillary region (superficial), and reticular region (deep)

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What are the four main skin glands of the dermis

  1. Sebaceous (produces oil, sits on hair follicles)

  2. Apocrine (also on hair follicles, watery secretion, found in armpits/pubic region)

  3. Eccrine (makes swear, regulated by sympatic nervous sytm)

  4. Ceruminous (earwax, prevents foreign bodies (bugs) in ears)

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What is the primary cell type of the dermis

Fibroblasts

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Name the 6 functions of the skin

  • Temp regulation

  • blood reservoir

  • protects from environment

  • cutaneous sensations

  • secretion and absorption

  • metabolism

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How does skin play a role in metabolism

contributes to vitamin D synthesis (which is needed to absorb calcium in diet)

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What waste products are secreted in sweat

ammonia and urea

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