APUSH Vocab - FULL

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443 Terms

1

Maize

Indian corn; first domesticated in Mesoamerica c. 6600 BCE. Allowed Amerindian tribes to become sedentary, which allowed for the expansion of culture.

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2

Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World and the New World. Resulted in population increase and the Commercial Revolution (shift to capitalism) in Europe, and the death of 90% of natives, mostly from smallpox.

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3

Encomienda System

A Spanish labor system in which natives were "gifted" to conquistadors as slaves, with the requirement they must Christianize them. Caused debates in Europe over the treatment of Native Americans and led to the Black Legend.

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4

Mita System

Brutal Spanish slave labor system that required Native Americans to mine precious metals for the conquistadors. Contributed to the Black Legend.

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5

Mission system

A Spanish system in which natives were forced to build Catholic churches and convert to Christianity (1769). Contributed to the Black Legend.

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6

Pueblo Revolt

Uprising in the Southwest against the Spanish over forced religious conversion and recent famine. Was one of the few successful native rebellions.

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7

Bartolome de Las Casas

Spanish priest who spoke out against the harsh treatment of the Native Americans. Helped end the encomienda system and responsible for spreading of the Black Legend.

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8

Juan de Sepulveda

Spanish priest who believed in the subjugation of the natives based on the idea of Christianization. Supported the encomienda system.

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9

John Smith

Early leader of Jamestown; "he who does not work shall not eat." Helped create an egalitarian culture among the early settlers.

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10

John Rolfe

Early leader of Jamestown; introduced a strain of tobacco that allowed the colony to turn a profit and married Pocahontas to seal an alliance with the Powhatans.

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11

Bacon's Rebellion

An uprising by indentured servants over missing "freedom dues," high taxes, and voting rights. It was aggravated by perceived failures by Governor William Berkeley to protect the common man. Led to the rise of black chattel slavery as the main labor source in the Chesapeake.

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12

Mayflower Compact

Puritan pilgrims and "strangers" signed a document that ensured universal white male suffrage in their colony. First democratic institution in the English colonies.

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13

Navigation Acts

Laws that restricted trade in the colonies to only using British ships. Led to widespread smuggling.

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14

Salutary Neglect

An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies in order to foster growth. Led to a sense of self-rule within the colonies.

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15

Mercantilism

The economic theory that colonies exist to bring profit to the mother country.

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16

Metacom's Rebellion

AKA: King Philip's War. The native chief led an alliance of native tribes against Puriitan settlers. The last major rebellion of Native Americans in New England.

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17

Great Awakening

A revival of religious feeling in the American colonies during the 1730s and 1740s. Stressed religious conversion, natural sinfulness of man, and the importance of the individual. Led people to question traditional authority.

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18

Enlightenment

A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason and logic in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.

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19

Seven Years War

A war fought in the colonies from 1754 to 1763 between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio River Valley area. It shifted the balance of imperial power in North America.

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20

Pontiac's Rebellion

An Indian uprising after the Seven Years War caused by British expansion into the western Ohio River Valley. Resulted in the creation of the Proclamation of 1763.

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21

John Locke

English philosopher who argued that people have natural rights (life, liberty, property). Inspired the ideals in the Declaration of Independence.

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22

Virtual Representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including American colonists, even if they did not have voting rights

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23

Common Sense

A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that used reason and logic in his claim that the colonies had a right to be an independent nation. Had a significant impact on shifting public opinion towards independence.

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24

Republican motherhood

The idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate "civic virtue" in their children. Led to a greater movement to educate women in America.

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25

Articles of Confederation

Extremely weak first Constitution of the U.S. Formed out of fears of tyranny from living under British rule.

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26

Shay's Rebellion

A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes. The delay in putting down the rebellion highlighted the need for a strong national government.

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27

republicanism

A form of government in which people elect representatives to create and enforce laws

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28

federalism

A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments

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29

separation of powers

Constitutional division of governmental power into several branches

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30

The Great Compromise

Compromise made by the Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives).

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31

Three-Fifths Compromise

Compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that would count three-fifths of the slave population for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.

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32

Federalists

A political faction that supported adoption of the Constitution. Believed in a strong, central government.

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33

Federalist Papers

A series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay (using the name "Publius") in support of the Constitution. Explained and justified the ideals and intent of the Constitution.

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34

Anti-Federalists

A political faction that opposed the adoption of Constitution during the period of ratification. Supported more states' rights and advocated for enumerated civil liberties.

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35

Bill of Rights

First ten amendments to the Constitution; major source of civil liberties; promised to Anti-Federalists to secure ratification of Constitution

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36

Hamilton's Financial Plan

Designed to pay off the U.S.'s Revolutionary War debts and stabilize the economy through the creation of the National Bank, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey; national unity would be asserted through the assumption of states' debt and Revolutionary War bonds would be paid off at face value.

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37

Federalist Party

A political party, led by Alexander Hamilton, that wanted to strengthen the federal government and promote industry and trade. Believed in loose construction of the Constitution, as supported by the "necessary and proper" clause.

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38

Democratic-Republicans

A political party, led by Thomas Jefferson, that favored strong state governments and agriculture. Believed in strict construction of the Constitution, as supported by the 10th Amendment.

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39

Whiskey Rebellion

Pennsylvania farmers rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax. Washington organized an army and put down the rebellion, illustrating the power of the new federal government.

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40

Washington's Farewell Address

Speech by Washington in which he warns against the development of political parties, the power of a large standing army, the negative impact of a large national debt, and the problems of permanent foreign alliances.

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41

Marbury v. Madison

Supreme Court case that established the power of judicial review

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42

Democratic Party

A political party formed by supporters of Andrew Jackson; supported a decentralized government, popular democracy, and state's rights

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43

Second Bank of the United States

Established in 1816 after the first national bank's charter expired; it stabilized the economy by creating a sound national currency, by making loans to farmers, small manufacturers, and entrepreneurs, and by regulating the ability of state banks to issue their own paper currency. Not supported by South and West because they relied more on local banks.

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44

Whigs

Anti-Jackson political party led by Henry Clay that supported industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin.

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45

American System

Economic program promoted by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy. Allowed for industrialization to occur, but was not supported by the South.

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46

Nat Turner's Rebellion

Rebellion in Virginia in which a group of slaves led an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families. Led to stronger slave codes and punishments for rebellion.

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47

Market Revolution

Drastic changes in transportation, communication, the production of goods allowing for the expansion of the market.

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48

Cotton Gin

Made cotton manufacturing much easier by quickly removing seeds and sticks from raw cotton. Higher demand due to spinning machines, and led to the expansion of the cotton industry and slavery in the South.

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49

Interchangeable parts

Machine parts (components) that are identical so that they can be easily replaced. Led to the expansion of factories in the North.

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50

Manifest Destiny

the 19th-century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable.

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51

Monroe Doctrine

Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S.

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52

Missouri Compromise

A compromise between pro- and anti-slavery advocates concerning the extension of slavery into new territories. Established two new states to maintain a Senatorial balance and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.

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53

Mexican American War

War fought against Mexico in order for the U.S. to claim the territory in the western part of the American continent. Allowed the U.S. to complete its Manifest Destiny.

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54

Second Great Awakening

A religious revival that stressed evangelism and human perfectability as well as the immediacy of the second coming of Christ. Widespread in its geographical reach and creation of new denominations, as well as its impact on social reform.

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55

Abolitionism

A movement to end slavery. Inspired by the morality of the Second Great Awakening.

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56

Temperance

A movement to encourage moderation in alcohol consumption. Largely inspired by the Second Great Awakening and led by women who suffered the effects of men's alcoholism.

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57

Seneca Falls Convention

The first national women's rights convention which sought greater social, political, and economic equality for women.

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58

Declaration of Sentiments

Declared that all people are created equal; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights.

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59

Compromise of 1850

Agreement designed to ease tensions caused by the expansion of slavery into western territories. (1) California admitted as free state, (2) popular sovereignty in Mexican Cession territory, (3) slave trade abolished in DC, and (4) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas

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60

popular sovereignty

Territories in the LA Purchase region would be allowed to determine the status of slavery in their area. Introduced by Stephen Douglas. Negated the Missouri Compromise.

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61

Free Soil Party

A political party formed in 1848 to oppose the extension of slavery into U.S. territories. Involved in the settling of Kansas.

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62

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Gave the people in Kansas and Nebraska the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty. Introduced by Stephen Douglas. Led to Bleeding Kansas (the first blood shed over slavery)

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63

Dred Scott v. Sanford

Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process (e.g. slaves)

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64

Uncle Tom's Cabin

A novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 which portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral and intensified sectional conflict.

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65

Republican Party

Formed by former Whigs and Free-Soilers; first political party to expressly support abolition.

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66

Election of 1860

Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery and without a single Southern electoral vote. Directly led to the secession of South Carolina and seven other states.

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67

Copperheads

Northern Democrats who opposed the Civil War and sympathized with the South. Considered extrmely dangerous to the Union cause.

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68

Emancipation Proclamation

Dclared all slaves in the states of rebellion to be free. This legitimized the confiscation of "intelligent contraband," prevented Britain from aiding the Confederacy, and provided a strong moral cause for the Union.

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69

Radical Republicans

A political party faction that favored equality for African Americans and harsh punishment of Southern states after the Civil War. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens.

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70

13th Amendment

Abolished slavery in the United States except as punishment for a crime

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71

14th Amendment

Declared that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection under the law

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72

15th Amendment

Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude

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73

Plessy v. Ferguson

A Supreme Court case that upheld the constitutionality of segregation laws, establishing the doctrine of "separate but equal," and that these laws did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment.

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74

Sharecropping

A system used in the South following the Civil War in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops; meant to keep African Americans in economic subservience to whites.

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75

Compromise of 1877

Awarded Republicans control of the White House in return for the end of military occupation of the South, essentially ending Reconstruction.

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76

The Progressive Era

1890 - 1920, Progressives tended to be women, middle class, and live in urban areas. Progressives sought to use government influence to solve societal problems.

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77

National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry

This organization sought to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities

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78

Farmers Alliance

A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy

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79

Populist Party

AKA: People's Party; U.S. political party representing farmers and industrial workers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies

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80

Silver Standard

paper money used to be backed up by gold, but to help farmers and the working class they wanted the currency to be based on silver

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81

Cross of Gold Speech

An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" and insisted on silver-backed currency.

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82

Interstate Commerce Commission

a federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers (e.g. railroads) that transported goods and people between states

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83

Sixteenth Amendment

Established a graduated income tax

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84

Initiative, referendum, and recall

Progressive powers created to enable voters, by petition, to propose or repeal legislation or to remove an elected official from office.

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85

Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883

Required that federal office holders would be assessed on a merit basis to be sure they were fit for duty, stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons

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86

Seventeenth Amendment

Direct election of senators

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87

National American Woman Suffrage Association

A group formed by leading activists in the late 1800s to organize the women's suffrage movement. Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

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88

National Woman's Party

A group of militant suffragists who took to the streets with mass pickets, parades, and hunger strikes to convince the govt to give them the right to vote. Led by Alice Paul.

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89

Nineteenth Amendment

Gave women the right to vote

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90

Sherman/Clayton Antitrust Acts

Prohibits monopolies, or acts in restraint of trade

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91

Clayton Antitrust Act

law that weakened monopolies and upheld the rights of unions and farm organizations

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92

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire

Fire in New York swaetshop that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; over 100 deaths; led to the establishment health and safety precautions for workers

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93

Muckrakers

Investigative journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing during the Gilded Age and expose it to the public

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94

The Jungle

Novel by Upton Sinclair that pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.

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95

Ida B. Wells

African American journalist who published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest racism and discrimination

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96

Atlanta Compromise

Argument put forward by Booker T. Washington that African-Americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement.

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97

W.E.B. Du Bois

Fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movementand NAACP to fight for and establish equal rights.

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98

Gospel of Wealth

The belief that, as the guardians of society's wealth, the rich have a duty to serve society; promoted by Andrew Carnegie

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99

Social Gospel

A movement in the late 1800s/early 1900s which emphasized Christian charity and social responsibility as a means of reform.

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100

Hull House

Settlement home created by Jane Addams that provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.

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