Middle Childhood

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Kohlberg Stages

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35 Terms

1

Kohlberg Stages

Obedience & punishment → individualism vs. exchange of favors

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2

Vygotsky

MKO/Learning from others by social interaction

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3

Maslow

Pyramid of Needs

School provides:

Safety/Health, Love/Belonging, Esteem, and Cognitive

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4

Erikson Stage

Industry vs. Inferiority

Earn competency

Evaluated by a formal system

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5

Piaget Stages

Pre-operational → Concrete Operational

-Beginning of logical thinking

-Begin to develop identity

-Conservation

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6

Growth - Puberty & Nutrition

Girls: As early as 9

Boys: 12-16

2400 calories a day

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7

Growth - Sleep

  • 6 years old: 11 hours

  • 9 years old: 10 hours

  • 13 years old: 9 hours

Sleep Problems: Due to nightmares, insomnia, lack of discipline.

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8

Growth - Motor Development

  • Starts to get coordinated/accumulated to changing bodies

  • change w/ puberty

  • Fine motor skills- writing and drawing skills

  • Understanding fairness/cheating

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9

Growth - Problems

  • Obesity

    -Genetic, lack of info on nutrition, or more sedentary life (sitting inside, video games, less movement.)

  • Eating Disorders

    -Influenced by media

    -Bulimia/Anorexia nervosa

  • Accidental Injuries

  • ADD/ADHD, Asthma

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10

Cognitive Development - Language & Literacy

  • Ability to read, write, understand/express language

  • Critical to communicate

  • Better vocabulary

  • Difficult for English language learners

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11

SKILLS NEEDED FOR LITERACY - PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS

Language we speak/hear is composed of units of sound called phonemes.

  • Phonemic awareness: Understanding syllables/phonemes are made up of smaller sounds. Taught through rhyming, blending, and segmentation.

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12

SKILLS NEEDED FOR LITERACY - PHONICS

  • SOUNDS to PRINTED WORDS

    -Decoding

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13

SKILLS NEEDED FOR LITERACY - READING COMPREHENSION

  • Understand, remember, and communicate what you read.

    -Learn to predict, ask questions, and problem solve.

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14

SKILLS NEEDED FOR LITERACY - FLUENCY

  • Must read accurately, with reasonable speed, expression, and proper punctuation.

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15

SKILLS NEEDED FOR LITERACY - VOCAB

  • Use and understand many words.

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16

Literacy - Frontal Lobe

Speech, reading fluency, comprehension, and grammar.

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17

Literacy - Parietal Lobe

Translate spoken/written language.

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18

Literacy - Occipital Lobe

Visual recognition of letters.

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19

Literacy - Temporal Lobe

Phonological awareness and decoding sounds.

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20

Memory - Location

  • Half of memories stored in Limbic System (hippocampus, amygdala, cerebellum)

  • frontal lobe

  • Over half of your limbic system helps with long-term memory

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21

Memory - Hippocampus

  • Learning and memory (Short term and spatial memory) and behavior.

  • Transfer memories to other parts of the brain.

  • Gives meaning to memories

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22

Memory - Amygdala

  • Influences how memories are stored b/c of stress hormones

  • Memory consolidation

  • Transfer new information into long term memory

    • Things you have to remember

    • Emotional arousment (good or bad)

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23

Memory - Frontal Lobe

  • Deals with short-term and long term memories that are not tasked base

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24

Memory - Cerebellum

  • Procedural/implicant memory

  • Motor learning

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25

Memory - Short Term vs. Long Term

Short term

  • Allows children to chunk information

  • Temporary storage

Long Term

  • Unlimited

  • Can last for years

  • Ability for hard memorization

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26

Memory - Sensory

The ability to retain impressions of sensory information. (How something smells, what an animal sounds like, what someone looks like.)

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27

Memory - Metacognition & Forming New Memories

  • Metacognition: Awareness of your own thought processes/thoughts. (Basically thinking about your thoughts.)

  • Organizing your thought patterns into groups.

  • Forming new memories

    • Encoding - recorded in memory

    • Storage - saved in thinking

    • Retrieval - brought into awareness

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28

Psychosocial Development - Spatial Thinking

  • Piaget: see relationship between whole and parts, take perspective of others

  • Kohlberg: Moral reasoning- reflect on experience and knowledge in order to evaluate and make conclusions.

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29

Psychosocial Development - Competency

  • Erikson: Industry vs. Inferiority (Inferiority complex)

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30

Psychosocial Development - Freedoms, Rights, and Responsibilities

  • Tension b/t new autonomy and increased expectations

  • Less time with family more with teachers, friends

    • Learn from influences how to judge behavior of others

  • Roles defined by qualities and achievements

  • Segregated by age - grade - successes/failures

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31

Games

  • Need encouragement to build stamina (grit)

  • Parents take part

  • Focus on the age

  • Start early

  • Parents give full attention

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32

Gender - Big Factors in Identification

  • Colors

  • Toys

  • Role models

  • SOCIAL IMPACT

    • Seen on TV or heard from those around you

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33

Gender - Female Learning

  • Use right and left brain because corpus callosum is thicker

  • Verbal

  • Specifics

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34

Gender - Male Learning

  • Right brain

  • Cortex is thicker

  • Better overall idea

  • Big picture

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35

Gender Flexibility

  • Parents (esp. dads) are less tolerant when kids cross gender lines

  • Knowledge of ability to cross lines ≠ accepting them

  • Girls’ identification with feminine traits have declined

  • Boys strengthen identification with masculine personality traits

    • Cognitive and psychosocial forces

    • “Masculine” characteristics have a greeted prestige

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