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Triangulation Method

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45 Terms

1

Triangulation Method

used by seismologists to find the epicenter of an earthquake using 3 recording stations.

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2

Triangulation Method

it is used in short-range earthquakes.

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3

formula for distance

d = time difference x 100km / 8 seconds

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4

Distance-Time Graph

uses the travel time of P and S waves. It is used in wide-range earthquakes.

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5

Convergent Boundary

two plates collide with each other

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6

Divergent Boundary

mid-ocean ridges are formed and fissures are produced

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7

Transform Boundary

two plates slide past each other

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8

Continental-Oceanic

the thinner but denser oceanic plate subducts where it melts and becomes hot molten rocks

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9

Oceanic-Oceanic

both plates or the older oceanic plate will subduct because it is denser

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10

Continental-Continental Features

no subduction

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11

Continental - Oceanic Features

Trench, Mountain Ranges, Volcanic Island Arc

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12

Oceanic-Oceanic Features

Volcanoes, volcanic island arcs, trenches

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13

Continental-Continental Features

Mountain ranges, plateu

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14

Convergent

Nazca - S. American, Philippine-Eurasian, S. American - Antarctic, D

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15

Transform

African-Antarctic, Antarctic-Australian

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16

Divergent

Pacific-Antarctic, Nazca-Pacific, African-S. American

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17

Mantle Convection

warm mantle currents drive and carry plates of lithosphere along like a conveyor belt

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18

Ridge Push

(Buoyant) upwelling mantle at mid ocean ridges----newly formed plates at oceanic ridges are warm and so have a higher elevation at the oceanic ridge than the colder, more dense plate material further away; gravity cause the higher plate at the ridge to push away the lithosphere that lies further from the ridge

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19

Slab Pull

older, colder plates sink at subduction zones, because as they cool, they become more dense than the underlying mantle. The cooler sinking plate pulls the rest of the warmer plate along behind it.

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20

The Earth's interior has tremendous heat very high pressure underneath

because it has no mechanical probes and has not been subjected to any actual exploration

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21

Crust

outermost and thinnest layer

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22

Mantle

middle part ; makes up most of the Earth’s volume and mass

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23

Outer Core

made up of molten liquid/metallic materials

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24

Inner Core

made up of solid nickel and iron. Its temperature reaches up to 5000 Degree C.

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25

Asthenosphere

weakest layer above the mantle where the lithosphere floats

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26

Lithosphere

Crust + Upper Mantle

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27

Seismic Waves

Produced through the rapid release of energy in earthquakes

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28

Seismic Waves

Radiates in all directions from the focus

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29

Surface

  • travels within the Earth’s surface

  • comes after body waves

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30

Love Waves (A. E. H. Loves) (1911)

  • faster than Rayleigh waves

  • side to side horizontal motions (snake)

  • most damaging in structure

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31

Rayleigh Waves (John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh)

  • rolls along the grounds (side-side;up-down) similar to the wave motion direction

  • most of the shaking is felt

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32

Body Waves

  • moves through the inner layers of the Earth

  • used by scientists to study the layers of Earth

  • higher frequency

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33

Primary (P)

  • travels quickly through solid, liquid, and gas

  • faster than S waves

  • Compressional: parallel to the direction of the waves

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34

Secondary (S)

  • travels slower in solids

  • slower than P waves

  • sheer/transverse - forces the ground to sway; PERPENDICULAR to the wave direction

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35

How scientists study the Earth's interior

Speed, Reflection, Refraction

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36

Continental Jigsaw Puzzle

the edge of one continent matches/fit to the edge of other continents

eg. S. America - Africa

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37

Fossil Records

remains/traces of once a living thing that live in the remote past

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38

Glossopteris

found in 250 million years old rocks found in South America

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39

Messosaurus and Lytosaurus

fresh water reptiles found their fossils on S. Africa, Antarctica, Australia, and India

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40

Rocks Formation

rocks formation/layers of the Africa is lined-up with the rock formation/layers of South America as if it's a long mountain range

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41

Coal Deposits

coal beds are formed due to the compaction and deposition of swamp plants located in the Southern Africa, Antarctica, South East Asia, Indian sub-continents and South American.

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42

Seafloor Spreading

proposed by Harry Hess and Robert Dietz (1960)

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43

Seafloor Spreading

hot, less dense materials from below the Earth's crust rises towards the surface at the mid-ocean ridge

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44

Lines of Evidence in Seafloor Spreading

Magnetic Reversal Magnetic materials found on rocks

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45

ELEMENTS FOUND IN THE CORE

Iron Calcium Potassium Magnesium Titanium Sodium Oxygen Silicon Hydrogen Nickel

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