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1

procedure

-named group of programming instructions that may have parameters/return values

-referred to by different names (method or function) depending on the programming language.

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2

for-each counting loop

block that repeatedly processes one or more instructions until some condition is met

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3

repeat until loop

-Block that repeats its code until the boolean condition evaluates to true.

-If the condition evaluates to true initially, the code is not executed at all

-There can be an infinite loop if the ending condition never evaluates to true.

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4

Logo

-programming language invented in the 1960s by Seymour Papert

-used to draw simple and complex geometric shapes.

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5

iterative thinking

thinking process of repeatedly processing a limited number of steps

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6

step-wise refinement

thinking process of moving one small step at a time when developing a program

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7

design thinking

-iterative process

-consists of understanding the user; challenging assumptions; & redefining problems to identify strategies/solutions that might not be instantly apparent

-empathize, define, ideate, prototype, test

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8

step 1 of design thinking (empathize)

investigating & understanding users to identify the program requirements through surveys, user testing, or interviews

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9

step 2 of design thinking (define)

analyzing the problem & determining the program specifications

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10

step 3 of design thinking (ideate)

brainstorming possible solutions through paper prototypes or making a list of ideas

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11

step 4 of design thinking (prototype)

Creatively build simple solutions

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12

step 5 of design thinking(test)

Evaluate the solutions

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13

hypothesis

explanation that can be tested by experimentation written in if/then format

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14

simulation

-Mimics real-world events with the purpose of drawing inferences

-Involves removing specific details/simplifying functionality.

-Facilitates the formulation & refinement of hypotheses related to the objects/phenomena under consideration.

-Computer simulations usually make some simplifying assumptions about the real-world object being modeled.

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15

randomness

-lack of pattern/regularity

-sequence of events has no order

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16

deterministic

process that is completely predictable

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17

pseudo random number generator (PRNG)

-Algorithm that generates a series of numbers that appear to be random but are determined by it -Simulation (abstraction) of real randomness

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18

seed

tells the PRNG where to begin in the sequence

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19

pseudo random numbers

requires seed, mod, & formula

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20

linear congruential generator (LCG)

-PRNG that uses a linear function -Does not require much memory

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21

random event

-event that cannot be predicted with certainty -i.e. flipping a fair coin, rolling a die, picking a card from a well shuffled deck.

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22

random block

block that gets pseudo-random numbers

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23

random fraction block

block that only generates values between 0 & 0.99

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24

model

abstraction that provides a simplified representation of some object/phenomenon

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25

fair coin

flipped coin that would come up heads 50% of the time over a large number of coin flips

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26

modular arithmetic

-system of arithmetic for whole numbers in which the numbers â€śwrap aroundâ€ť upon reaching a certain value (the modulus) -i.e. a 12-hour clock "wraps around" to 1 after 12

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27

mod operator

returns the remainder when a number is divided by another

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28

computing innovation

-executes a program as a fundamental part of its function

-i.e. picture editing software, self-driving car

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29

data

-information formatted in a certain way -i.e. text on paper, bytes stored electronically

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30

computing innovations w/ data

-input

-processing

-storage

-output

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31

data privacy

assures that personal/corporate confidential information is collected, used, protected & destroyed legally & fairly

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32

data security

controls access to personal information, protecting against its unauthorized use & acquisition

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data storage

-archives data

-2 types of storage (hard data & remote data)

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hard data

-RAM

-Hard Drive

-flash drives

-solid state

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35

remote data

cloud computing

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36

personally identifiable information (PII)

-information about an individual that identifies, links, relates, is unique to, or describes them.

-i.e. social security number, age, race, phone number(s)

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37

cookies

-Small files or bits of data that are stored on your computer.

-Placed when you access a site

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