sociology flashcards

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Sociology

sociology final

65 Terms

1

sociology

scientific study of social interaction and social structure

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2

society

aggregate of ppl living together in an ordered community

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3

4 factors that led to birth of sociology

american rev., french rev., industrial rev., enlightenment

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4

Harriet Martineau

translated Auguste Comte’s work from French to English

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5

define social drawinism

evolutionary social change (survival of the fittest)

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6

what was durkheim studying when he introduced the use of statistical techniques

suicide

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7

what did Karl Marx believe was the root of all evil

capitalism

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8

define verstehen. who came up with it?

putting yourself into other’s shoes (empathy) ; Max Weber

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9

what was hull house and who co-founded it?

a place for people who needed refuge; Jane Addams

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10

what was the Pan-African movement; which sociologist was very active in it?

rights of ALL African descendants; WEB DuBois

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11

social statics vs. social dynamics

statics - study of social stability

dynamics - study of how a society changes

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12

functionalism

ALL aspects of society serve a purpose for survival of a society

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13

what is the conflict perspective

conflict, competition, and change

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14

content analysis

counting the amount of times a particular idea, word, phrase, symbol, or event appear in a given context

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15

define historical analysis

examines materials from the past that contain sociological interest

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16

how do overt(participant) and covert observations differ

overt - when participants are AWARE of being observed

covert- UNAWARE

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17

what does the hypothesis of linguistic relativity state

language determines thought

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18

which type of norm has a moral significance

mores

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19

which type of norms are similar to customs

folkways

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20

which type of norms sees its violation as a danger to the culture

taboo

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21

sanctions

punishments for disobeying orders

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22

how do formal sanctions differ from informal sanctions?

formal - enforced by law and people of authority ; informal - enforced by whomever or crows of people

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23

how to positive sanctions differ from negative sanctions?

positive - promised rewards ; negative - threatened punishments

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24

what are values

shared beliefs about what is good or bad; communicate values through language or symbols

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25

discovery

finding something new that already exists

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26

invention

creating something totally new

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27

diffusion

the process through which elements of culture spread from one society or cultural group to another

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28

counterculture

a subculture that deliberately/consciously opposes beliefs of the dominant culture

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29

subculture

part of the dominant culture that differs in some aspects

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30

what is enthrocentricism? is it positive, negative, or both?

judging others in terms of one’s own cultural standards; both positive and negative

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31

cultural relativism

the idea that a person’s beliefs, values, or practices should be understood through that person’s own culture and not judged against the criteria of another

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32

6 reasons why cultures change

ideology, technology, diffusion, population, physical environment, and wars

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33

4 factors that shape a person’s personality

heredity, birth order, cultural environment, and paraents’ characteristics

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34

a characteristic of the oldest, middle, and youngest child

oldest - leader

middle - independent

youngest - childish

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35

role vs. status

role - behavior

status - describes a role

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36

ascribed status

status that you are born with

ex; daughter

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37

achieved status

earned status

ex; teacher

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38

oldest type of society

huntering-gathering

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39

what society are we in now

post-industrial

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40

a characteristic of the post-industrial society

white-collar jobs

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41

what is the difference between an aggregate and a group?

aggregate - people in the same area joined by group proximity

group - a mass of people working together to achieve goals

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42

what type of group includes family and close friends?

primary group

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43

what type of group is exclusive and requires extreme loyalty from its members?

in-groups

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44

social exchange vs. cooperation

SE - do something for someone because you wish for something in return

cooperation - 2 or more individuals working together to achieve a common goal

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45

who did the famous conformity line study? what were his findings?

Soloman Asch; 37/50 conformed to wrong answers

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46

who coined the term “group-think” and what does it mean?

Irving Janis; practice of making decisions as a group that discourages creativity (more negative)

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47

bystander effect

ppl. are less likely to help when others are present

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48

diffusion of responsibilty

ppl. are less likely to act when someone needs help when others are present (but more likely to help in smaller groups)

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49

6 degrees of seperation

all people are connected by 6 people or less

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50

deviance

behavior that departs from social norms

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51

how can deviance be positive

increases unity within a society and promotes needed social change

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52

who developed the strain theory of deviance? what does it state?

Robert Merton; deviance is a result of tensions or strains experienced by people because of their position in the social structure

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53

which theory states that deviance is learned

differential association theory

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54

how does the conflict theory explain deviance

deviant behaviors are actions that do not go along with social institutions

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55

difference between primary and secondary deviance

primary - commit deviant acts without knowing

secondary - internalizing the label society has given you (ex; you are labeled as a thief so you continue stealing)

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56

purpose of the UCR

to generate a reliable set of criminal date for use in law-based operations

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57

who does the UCR report its crimes to?

the FBI

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58

victimless crime

prostitution

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59

murder vs. manslaughter

murder - intentional

manslaughter - unintentional

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60

an example of white-collar crimes

embezzlement

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61

what is the term for a large crime syndicate that uses legitimate businesses for illegal activity

the mafia

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62

4 methods of controlling crime

  1. retribution - punishment for purposes of revenge or repaying for a wrongdoing)

  2. incarceration - imprisonment

  3. rehabilitation

  4. deterrence -discouraging an action through fear of consequence

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63

what form of execution is used in Texas?

lethal injection

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64

5 methods of execution permissible in the United States

electrocution, lethal injection, gas chamber, firing squad, and hanging

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65

what is the recidivism rate?

the amount of ppl. who have relapsed to criminal or negative behavior after already being punished or incarcerated for it

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