APUSH/IBHA Periods 1-5 Vocab

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124 Terms

1

Maize

a Central American cereal plant that yields large grains set in rows on a cob; corn.

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2

Virgin soil epidemic

introduction of a disease to a population with no previous exposure and therefore no natural immunities.

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3

Beringia

a loosely defined region surrounding the Bering Strait, the Chukchi Sea, and the Bering Sea.

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4

Aztecs

the indigenous people dominant in Mexico before the Spanish conquest of the 16th century

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5

Incas

A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries

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6

Conquistadores

a general term for any one of a group of Spanish explorers in the New World who sought to conquer the native people, establish dominance over their lands, and prosper from their natural resources, including gold.

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7

Hernan Cortez

Spanish conquistador who led conquering expedition to Mexico in 1519

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8

Protestant Reformation

A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of different Christian churches.

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9

Christopher Columbus

Italian sailor who in 1492 sailed under the Spanish flag and arrived in the New World

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10

Encomiendo system

a land grant by the Spanish Crown to a colonist in America giving the right to demand tribute and forced labor from the Indian inhabitants of an area

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11

Bartolome de Las Casas

a Spanish Dominican friar and former conquistador who protested the treatment of the indigenous people of the New World

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12

Prince Henry the Navigator

Portuguese prince who led military campaigns in North Africa and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire

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13

Indentured servant

a form of labor in which a person is contracted to work without salary for a specific number of years

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14

Roanoake

a settlement of British colonists whom Walter Raleigh sent to Roanoke Island and which disappeared.

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15

Cahokia

A pre-Columbian Native American city in present-day Illinois

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16

Iroquois Confederation

a representative democracy run by a Grand Council made up of representatives from each of the five (later six) tribes.

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17

Mayflower Compact

the first governing document of Plymouth Colony

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18

Roger Williams

English clergyman and colonist who was expelled from Massachusetts for criticizing Puritanism; founded Rhode Island

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19

"City Upon a Hill"

a phrase from the Bible that is used by politicians and clergymen as an expectation that followers would set a shining example

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20

Anne Hutchinson

an influential Puritan spiritual leader in colonial New England who challenged the religious doctrines of her time

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21

Asiento system

a contract granted by the Spanish crown to an individual or company allowing the holder exclusive rights in the slave trade with Spain's American colonies

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22

Huguenots

French Protestants of the 16th–17th centuries.

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23

House of Burgesses

the first English representative government in North America established in the Jamestown colony of Virginia

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24

Massachusetts Bay Company

joint-stock company chartered by Charles I in 1629

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25

Jamestown

The first successful English settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607

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26

Half way covenant

a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662.

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27

William Penn

Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania

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28

John Smith

Leader of the Jamestown colony

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29

Puritans

group of people who wanted to “purify” the Church of England; established Massachusetts Bay Colony

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30

Separatists

group of people from England who wanted to separate themselves from the Church of England

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31

James Oglethorpe

English leader who founded the colony of Georgia as a place where debtors from England could begin new lives.

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32

Mercantilism

Economic philosophy or practice in which European countries established the colonies to provide raw materials to the Mother Country; the colonies received manufactured goods in return.

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33

Middle Passage

refers to the part of the trade where Africans, densely packed onto ships, were transported across the Atlantic to the West Indies.

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34

Bacon’s Rebellion

an armed rebellion held by Virginia settlers that took place from 1676 to 1677

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35

Poor Richard’s Almanack

a yearly almanac published by Benjamin Franklin,

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36

Great Awakening

a tremendous North American religious revival in mid

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37

John Peter Zenger

Printer who was arrested for libel in 1734; his trial helped establish the principle of freedom of the press.

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38

Enlightenment

intellectual movement stressing the importance of reason and the existence of discoverable natural laws

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39

Jonathan Edwards

an American revivalist preacher, philosopher, and Congregationalist theologian

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40

Phillis Wheatley

Poet who was the first African American woman to publish a book

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41

Pocahontas

daughter of Chief Powhatan; she helped establish a time of peace between the Powhatans and the English at Jamestown

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42

King Philip’s War

war in 1670s between Native Americans and English settlers living in New England (aka Metacom’s War)

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43

Navigation Acts

a series of laws designed to restrict England's carrying trade to English ships

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44

Headright system

a grant of land, usually 50 acres, given to whomever paid for the passage of someone to the colonies

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45

Mayflower

the ship that brought Separatists from Holland to Plymouth

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46

Indigo

a tropical plant of the pea family, which was formerly widely cultivated as a source of dark blue dye

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47

Triangular trade

three sided trade route between the 13 Colonies, the West Indies, and Africa

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48

Metacom

Massasoit chief (aka King Philip) who led several Native American groups against the British in King Philip’s War

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49

Pilgrims

a group of people who traveled to a new place for religious reasons

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50

Joint stock company

a company whose stock is owned jointly by the shareholders.

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51

Albany Congress

a meeting of representatives sent by the legislatures of seven of the nine northern colonies; Representatives met to discuss better relations with the Native American tribes and common defensive measures against the French threat from Canada in the opening stage of the French and Indian War,

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52

French and Indian War

A series of military engagements between Britain and France in North America between 1754 and 1763.

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53

Sugar Act

also known as the American Revenue Act, was a revenue-raising act passed by the British Parliament of Great Britain in April of 1764

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54

Stamp Act

imposed a direct tax on the colonies of British America and required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp.[1][2] Printed materials included legal documents, magazines, playing cards, newspapers, and many other types of paper used throughout the colonies.

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55

Boston Massacre

the killing of five colonists by British regulars on March 5, 1770

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56

Boston Tea Party

a political protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1773.

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57

Coercive Acts

a series of laws relating to Britain's colonies in North America and passed by the British Parliament in 1774. Four of the acts were issued in direct response to the Boston Tea Party of December 1773.

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58

Salutary neglect

the British Crown policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, especially trade laws, as long as British colonies remained loyal to the government of, and contributed to the economic growth of their parent country,

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59

Common Sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775–76 advocating independence from Great Britain to people in the Thirteen Colonies

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60

Battle of Saratoga

marked the climax of a campaign giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War.

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61

Battle of Yorktown

a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington

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62

Articles of Confederation

the original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781, which was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789

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63

Northwest Ordinance

defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. The ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation

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64

Hessians

18th century German auxiliaries contracted for military service by the British government

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65

Baron von Stueben

a foreign volunteer who drilled American troops during the War of Independence

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66

Benedict Arnold

a general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army

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67

Shays’ Rebellion

revolt of Massachusetts farmers against high state taxes

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68

Three-Fifths Compromise

agreement made at the Constitutional Convention that only three-fifths of the slaves in a state would be counted for representation and tax purposes

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69

Bill of Rights

first ten amendments to the Constitution

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70
  1. Great Compromise

agreement at the Constitutional Convention to create a congress with two houses

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71

Judiciary Act of 1789

a United States federal statute enacted on September 24, 1789, during the first session of the First United States Congress. It established the federal judiciary of the United States.

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72

Mobocracy

rule or domination by the masses

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73

Federalists

supporters of a strong national government and in favor of adopting the Constitution

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74

Anti-Federalists

person opposed to the new US Constitution and its emphasis on a strong national government

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75

Abigail Adams

writer, early feminist and the first First Lady to live in the White House

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76

Marbury v. Madison

Marbury v. Madison a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution.

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77

Barbary Wars

two wars fought at different times over the same reasons between the United States, Sweden and the Barbary states of North Africa in the late 18th and early 19th centuries Louisiana Purchase

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78

Louis and Clark Expedition

also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States.

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79

Impressment

the act of taking men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice

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80

War of 1812

a military conflict that lasted from June 18, 1812 to February 18, 1815, fought between the United States of America and the United Kingdom, its North American colonies, and its Native American allies.

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81

The American System

envisioned a protective tariff, a national bank jointly owned by private stockholders and the federal government, and federal subsidies for transportation projects ('internal improvements').

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82

Era of Good Feelings

the period from 1817-1823 in which the disappearance of the Federalists enabled the Republicans to govern in a spirit of seemingly nonpartisan harmony

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83

Missouri Compromise

a United States federal statute devised by Henry Clay. It regulated slavery in the country's western territories by prohibiting the practice in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north

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84

Florida Purchase Treaty (1819)

The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, the Florida Purchase Treaty, or the Florida Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain

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85

Nat Turner

an African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman

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86

Defense of Slavery

included economics, history, religion, legality, social good, and even humanitarianism, to further their arguments

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87

Washington Irving

an American short-story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century. He is best known for his short stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"

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88

Trail of Tears

as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the forced removal of Native Americans from the southeastern region of the US to Oklahoma

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89

ecological imperialism

the exploitation of natural resources

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90

Nullification Crisis

In November 1832 the Nullification Convention met. The convention declared that the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and unenforceable within the state of South Carolina after February 1, 1833. They said that attempts to use force to collect the taxes would lead to the state's secession.

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91

“corrupt bargain”

the alleged deal between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay wherein Clay influenced the presidential decision in exchange for the post of Secretary of State following the Election of 1824

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92

cult of domesticity

a prevailing value system among the upper and middle classes during the nineteenth century in the United States[2] and Great Britain. This value system emphasized new ideas of femininity, the woman's role within the home and the dynamics of work and family. "True women" were supposed to possess four cardinal virtues: piety, purity, domesticity, and submissiveness

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93

Nativisim

the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.

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94

Second Great Awakening

a Protestant religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States.

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95

Dorothea Dix

an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums.

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96

Transcendentalism

a philosophical movement that advocated for simplistic living, self-reliance, a connection with nature and acknowledgement of an inner light that connects a person directly to the divine

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97

Joseph Smith

an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement. When he was twenty-four, Smith published the Book of Mormon.

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98

Frederick Douglass

an African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman

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99

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

an American suffragist, social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement.

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100

Popular sovereignty

a solution to the slavery crisis by which territorial residents, not Congress would decide whether a territory was a free or slave one.

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