Period 6 pt. II Vocab - APUSH

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“Iron law of wages”

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“Iron law of wages”

a theory developed by David Ricardo that argues that raising wages would only increase the working population, and the availability of more workers would in turn cause wages to fall (endless cycle)

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Collective Bargaining

the ability of workers to negotiate as a group with an employer over wages and working conditions

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3

Railroad Strike of 1877

A strike on the Baltimore and Ohio RR that spread across 11 states and shut down ⅔ of the country’s rail lines; 500,000 workers from other industries joined and Pres Hayes used fed troops to shut down the strike; >100 ppl were killed; kinda worked→ SOME improved wages and working conditions were granted

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4

Labor Unions (NLU, KoL, AFL)

attempts to organize all workers in all states--- skilled and unskilled, agricultural and industrial; promoted higher wages, the eight-hour day, equal rights for women and AA, monetary reform, worker cooperatives, child labor, etc.; some were public and some were secretive

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5

Haymarket Bombing

a bombing supposedly targeted towards police trying to break up a public labor meeting in Haymarket square; anarchists (ppl trying to rid all gov) were accused and the Knights of Labor lost popularity and membership bc of this incident

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6

Homestead Strike

the manager (Frick) of Carnegie’s homestead steel plant near Pittsburgh caused a strike for cutting 20% of the wages; he used different strikebreaking starts to defeat the workers’ walkout and this failure set the movement back

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7

Pullman Strike

a railroad car company announced a general cut in wages and fired the leaders of the workers’ delegation who came to bargain with the manager; workers went to the American RR Union (ARU) and leader, Eugene V. Debs, ordered workers not to handle trains the company’s train cars → fed court came in and ordered the abandonment of the strike → union leaders said no and were arrested, ending the strike

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8

Old & New immigrants

two groups of people that mostly came from Europe; the first group were mainly English-speaking protestants (easy blend) and the second group were Europeans that came from southern/western Europe that was relatively poor and largely catholic, greek/Russian orthodox, or Jewish; the second group faced a lot more discrimination

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9

Chinese Exclusion Act

banned all Chinese immigration into the US; was not lifted fully until 1965

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10

Dumbbell tenements

buildings constructed with open ventilation shafts in the center to provide windows for each room to abide by the new law in NYC; IMMIGRANTS WERE POOR --> here

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11

Ethnic Neighborhoods

groups of people of the same ethnicity collectively living in the same area, in which each group could maintain its own language, culture, church, and/or social club

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12

Ellis/Angel Island

immigration centers that had immigrants run through extensive medical examinations and had them pay a tax to enter the US

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13

Political Machines (Tammany Hall)

tightly organized groups of politicians; each had a “boss” at the top and they gave out jobs and ranking to loyal supporters (cronies)

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14

Settlement Houses (Hull House)

places where middle-class women and men would move into to learn about the problems of immigrant families firsthand; they hoped to relieve the effects of poverty by providing social services for people in the neighborhood

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15

White vs. Blue-collar Workers

salaried employees whose jobs generally do not involve manual labor vs. jobs that involve manual labor

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16

“Gospel of Wealth”

the philosophy that the wealthy had a moral responsibility to carry out projects of civic philanthropy to help other members of society to better themselves and in turn improve society; argued by Andrew Carnegie

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17

Growth of leisure time

caused by the expansion of the middle class; because people were working less, they were able to take enjoyment in different activities; became a big business in the late 19th century

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18

Salvation Army

a group that provided the basic necessities to the homeless and the poor while preaching the Christian gospel

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19

Social Gospel

the importance of applying Christian principles to social problems by improving housing, raising wages, and supporting public health measures

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20

NAWSA

created by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony; goal to secure equal voting (and general) rights for women

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21

WCTU

a social group that advocated for total abstinence from alcohol; under the leadership of Frances E. Willard

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22

Anti-saloon League

a group that became a powerful political force that persuaded 21 states to close down all saloons and bars

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23

New Art Styles (realism, naturalism, impressionism)

artwork that depicted the everyday experience of human life and the emotions and trials that come with that

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24

Federal Land Grants

Federally-owned acreage that the gov granted to RRs and other businesses to promote the progress of the econ

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25

Credit Mobilier

to bribe government officials and pocket huge profits

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26

Interstate Commerce Act of 1887

tried to regulate the railroad industry; required RR to be “reasonable and just.”; also established the Interstate Commerce Commission which had the power to investigate pools, rebates, and other discriminatory practices and prosecute companies participating in them

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27

Antitrust movement

the scrutiny of trusts because of their unchecked concentration of power (fear of the middle class), and their increasing influence (fear of the urban elites)

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28

Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890

prohibited any “contract, combination, in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of trade/commerce”

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29

Assassination of President Garfield (Pendleton Act of 1881)

was killed by a deranged office seeker; caused congress to pass acts and commissions to create a system by which applicants for classified fed jobs would be selected on the basis of their scores on competitive examination; lead to politicians to focus more on the rich to fund their campaigns rather than a large number of party workers

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30

Soft vs. Hard Money

one group campaigned first for more paper money and the unlimited minting of silver coins (supported by debtors farmers and start-up businesses) and the other campaigned for a currency backed by gold stored in government vaults (supported by bankers, creditors, investors, and established businesses)

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31

Panic of 1873

many Americans blamed the gold standard for restricting the money supply and causing this event; boo depression

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32

Bloody Shirt

a reminder of the millions of veterans of the Union army that their wounds had been caused by (southern) Democrats and that Lincoln had been murdered by a democrat; was used by republican politicians to keep the memories of the Civil War alive during the Gilded Age

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33

Solid South

the former states of the Confederacy

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34

Omaha Platform

the populist party’s views concentrated on politically: direct popular election of US senators, using initiatives that allowed citizens to vote directly on proposed laws, and economically: having unlimited coinage of silver to increase the money supply, having a graduated income tax, government ownership of RRs and telegraph/telephone systems, have loans/federal warehouses for farmers, and an 8-hour day for industrial workers; WORKERS RIGHTS

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35

Panic of 1893

the stock market crashed bc of over-speculation, and dozens of RRs went into bankruptcy as a result of overbuilding; farms foreclosed, ad the unemployment rate reached 20%; Pres Cleveland dealt with the crises by championing the gold standard and otherwise adopting a hands-off policy toward the economy

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36

Coxey’s Army

a group of poorer people that marched to Washington led by Populist Jacob S. Coxey that demanded that the fed gov spend $500 mil on public works programs to create jobs; got sent home

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37

“Cross of Gold” Speech

during a national convention for the pro-silver Democrats, a speech delivered by William Jenning Bryan captured the hearts of delegates and instantly made him the Democratic nominee for president; “You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.”

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38

Gold Standard

any issued money must be backed by actual gold held in storage

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39

Andrew Carnegie

STEEL COMPANY (made him $$$); VERTICAL INTEGRATION; GOSPEL OF WEALTH (give back to the poor)

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40

John D. Rockefeller

STANDARD OIL TRUST; his company became a monopoly (no competition from other competitors); HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION

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41

Adam Smith

an economist that argued in the Wealth of Nations that mercantilism (including the regulation of trade by gov) was less efficient than allowing businesses to be guided by the impersonal economic force (invisible hand) of the law of supply and demand

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42

Horatio Alger

a novelist that portrayed the hope of self-made men with “honesty, hard work, and a little luck”

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43

Samuel Gompers

leader of the American Federation of Labor (concentrated on higher wages and improved working conditions); led local unions to walk out until they negotiated a newer, fairer (?) contract

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44

Eugene V. Debs

the ARU’s (American Railroad Union) leader; directed railroad workers to not handle any trains with Pullman Cars (Pullman strike); became jailed for his actions in the strike

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45

Jane Addams

most famous settlement house creator (the Hull House; reformer that taught English to immigrants, pioneered early-childhood edu, taught industrial arts, and established neighborhood theaters and music schools

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46

Clarence Darrow

a famous lawyer that argued that criminal behavior could be caused by a person’s environment of poverty, neglect, and abuse; changed ppls views on criminals

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47

Joseph Pulitzer

creator of the first newspaper to exceed a million in circulation (New York’s World); filled paper with stories of crimes and disasters and articles about political and econ corruption

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48

Scott Joplin

a black composer and performer that sold nearly a million copies of sheet music of his “Maple Leaf Rag”; helped expand the audience of jazz

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49

Grover Cleveland

24th POTUS; left the white house after his first term and returned 4 years later; pro-business

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50

William Jennings Bryan

delivered the powerful “Cross of Gold” speech that made him the democratic nominee for pres in 1896; “you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold”

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51

William McKinley

First modern imperial president; a republican nominee for pres in 1896; best known for his support of a high protective tariff but is also considered a friend of labor

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52

Mark Twain

pen name for Samuel L. Clemens; the first great realist author; The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (revealed the greed, violence, and racism in American Society

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53

Jack London

a young California writer and adventurer, portrayed the conflict between nature and civilization in his novels; The Call of the Wild; worshiped by Chris McCandless

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54

Louis Sullivan

rejected historical styles in his quest for TALL, STEEL-FRAMED office buildings

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55

Frankl Lloyd Wright

developed an “organic” style of architecture that was in harmony with its natural surroundings; long, horizontal lines of his prairie-style houses

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56

Frederick Law Olmsted

the originator of Landscape Architecture; specialized in the planning of city parks and scenic boulevards; like Central Park and the grounds of the US Capital

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57

Cardinal James Gibbons

A catholic leader that inspired the devoted support of old and new immigrants by defending the Knights of Labor and the cause of organized labor

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58

Walter Rauschenbusch

a baptist minister that lead the Social Gospel movement; worked in poverty-stricken neighborhood of NYC called Hell’s Kitchen and wrote several books urging organized religions to take up the causes of social justice

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59

Susan B. Anthony

a suffragist that helped found the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) to secure the vote for women

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60

Frances Willard

the leader of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Movement; advocated total abstinence from alcohol

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61

Carry Nation

an impatient temperance supporter that created a sensation by raiding salons and smashing barrels of beer with a hatchet

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62

Cardinal James Gibbons

A catholic leader that inspired the devoted support of old and new immigrants by defending the Knights of Labor and the cause of organized labor

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63

Walter Rauschenbusch

a baptist minister that lead the Social Gospel movement; worked in poverty-stricken neighborhood of NYC called Hell’s Kitchen and wrote several books urging organized religions to take up the causes of social justice

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64

Susan B. Anthony

a suffragist that helped found the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) to secure the vote for women

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65

Frances Willard

the leader of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Movement; advocated total abstinence from alcohol

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66

Carry Nation

an impatient temperance supporter that created a sensation by raiding salons and smashing barrels of beer with a hatchet

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