The Cold War

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NATO countries

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US History

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1

NATO countries

France, Britain, Iceland, Portugal, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Italy, West Germany, Norway, Turkey, and Greece

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2

Warsaw Pact countries

East Germany, Poland, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria

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3

Neutral countries

Spain, Ireland, Switzerland, Austria, Yugoslavia, Austria, Sweden, and Finland

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4

causes of distrust between the US and the USSR

A-bomb, Lend-Lease aid, Expansion, Nonaggression Pact, and Operation TORCH

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5

atomic bomb

Even though the US was allies with Stalin, Truman never told him we had a weapon of this magnitude nor that he was going to attack Japan-- Stalin thought this attack was a warning to the USSR

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6

Lend Lease Aid

given to Stalin, but once the US joined, they cancelled to Stalin but continued to give to Chiang Kai-Shek (who couldn’t even use it)

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7

expansion of Stalin

every nation he moved through, he left troops. FDR saw what he was doing and forced him to promise free elections

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8

nonaggression pact

Stalin’s agreement with Hitler from the war that was a red flag for the US, especially now, when everyone knows the secret part, adding a layer of distrust as the USSR would have grabbed territory and let Hitler do his thing

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9

Operation TORCH

at the Casablanca Conference, Stalin (struggling) begged the Allies to attack Europe first, but they decided to invade Africa first instead -- Stalin distrusts the US because of this

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10

Baruch Plan

Truman proposes this idea to Stalin to cut distrust - asks Stalin if he will allow Truman to send inspectors into the USSR to see if they were trying to stockpile atomic bombs; Stalin rejects this, making it a failure

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11

Stalin’s response to the Baruch Plan

he rejects it and instead wants the US to get rid of all atomic bombs, but Truman says no

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12

Truman Doctrine

entering into the second Red Scare in the US, Truman proposes this as a part of the US policy of containment. It said that the US was dedicated to making sure communism didn’t get any further than the USSR

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13

containment

stopping the spread of communism

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14

Executive Order 9835

Truman issues this to address the paranoia in the US; basically Truman’s loyalty program: fear that Soviet spies had infiltrated the federal government and were leaking secrets back to the Soviet government, so under this, every federal employee would have to face a certain level of interrogation

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15

Venona Files

in the 90s, these were disclosed to the public from interrogators and revealed that they had actually found Soviet spies in our government and that the fear was real. In the 50s, however, people didn’t know they were finding spies.

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16

National Security Act of 1947

created the National Security Council, the Department of Defense, the Air Force, and the CIA

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17

National Security Council

group of advisors meant to advise the president with policies with national security threats

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18

Department of Defense

formal Cabinet department for military cohesion under one group

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19

Air Force

new branch of the military that previously existed, though informally

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20

CIA

Central Intelligence Agency -- sending spies to foreign nations to infiltrate governments and report back

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21

Marshall Plan

policy of containment example

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22

Berlin Blockade

first actual conflict after Germany was split into four pieces; the USSR cut off all highways, railroads, and water routes to West Berlin.

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23

currency reform program

in June 1948, this was introduced by the Allies, who decided to all use German currency in their parts of Germany. Stalin had flashbacks to Casablanca and refused to participate

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24

Federal Republic of Germany

US, France, and Britain decide to join their three pieces of Germany into one.

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25

Berlin

capital of Germany that was in the Soviet part of Germany, but was split into West and East Berlin (the East belonging to the USSR)

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26

highways, railroads, and water routes

the Soviets cut off these three things to Berlin, known as the Berlin Blockade. People couldn’t leave East Berlin and starvation eventually set in.

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27

Berlin Airlift

aka Operation Vittles, this was the Allies response to Stalin’s Berlin Blockade. They would fly planes to West Berlin and air drop supplies to the citizens.

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28

why the Berlin Airlift was risky

Britain, France, and the US didn’t know if Stalin was going to shoot down their planes. They were on brink of another war -- the US had planes with atomic bombs ready if Stalin shot the supply planes down

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29

May 1949

Stalin lifted the blockade

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30

NATO

the democratic military alliance made by the Allies that included much of western Europe and the US after they realized that Stalin was crazy

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31

the Warsaw Pact

Stalin’s response to NATO -- communist military alliance that included the USSR and Satellite Nations (any country the USSR controlled and forced to be communist)

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32

Chinese Civil War

after the Japanese leave China, this immediately breaks out-- Mao Zedong (communist) vs. Jiang Jeshi (nationalist). Jeshi had lost all support after he’d fled to the interior of China, while Mao is seen as a hero for fighting for China

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33

China as a communist nation

Mao Zedong takes control of China in the civil war

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34

Taiwan (Formosa)

Jiang Jeshi flees here and claims that the true Chinese government is here, so the US only does business here

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35

hypes up

China becoming communist _____________ the Red Scare because two to very big countries were communist, causing more paranoia and thoughts that communism was spreading

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36

September 1949

the USSR successfully detonates their first nuclear device -- the US worst fear came true, and now both the US and the USSR have atomic bombs.

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37

Truman Doctrine’s proposals

the US would provide political, military, and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian forces. Truman wants the US to help stop the spread of communism to the rest of Europe, and he is proposing that the US aid Greece and Turkey.

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38

Greece

There is terrorist activity of several thousand men, led by Communists, and are defying the government’s authority in this nation, justifying US action. The government is unable to handle the situation; the army is small and poorly equipped. Truman thinks that this nation needs assistance to become a self-supporting and self-respecting democracy. No one else is willing to help them but the US; Britain needs to rescind their aid due to their own issues.

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39

Turkey

This nation needs financial assistance from Britain and the US for modernization to maintain its national integrity, justifying US action. Britain is backing out of assisting them, so the US is the only nation who can help them financially and economically.

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40

Henry Wallace

named Secretary of Agriculture by FDR in 1933; was made FDR’s running mate (vice president) in the 1940 presidential election, but he was very outspoken in his liberal views, so FDR replaced him with Harry Truman. However, he remained in the Cabinet as the Secretary of Commerce. He disagreed with Truman over foreign policies and ran against him in the 1948 presidential election.

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41

why Wallace was against the Truman Doctrine

Helping these other countries against Russia was going to be expensive and futile as Russia wouldn’t stop until another world war broke out. He felt that by supporting the governments of Greece and Turkey, the US was on the path to supporting other countries, like China and Argentina, with more radical governments. Wallace believed that militarism was never going to bring peace; he also thought Truman was betraying the traditions of America and its leaders by acting as the “best salesman communism ever had.”

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42

Marshall Plan’s proposals

The US give economic aid to restore the economy of postwar Europe. It wants to give Europe foreign food and other essential goods.

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43

George C. Marshall’s reasons for justifying the Marshall Plan

providing economic aid to Europe will benefit the European countries economically, as well as the US as they continue business with Europe. Normal economic health can be restored if the US steps in and helps Europe, plus the people themselves can benefit.

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44

why Charles W. Vursell was against the Marshall Plan

there are shortages on every hand, goods would be taken away from American people, it’s too expensive, they can’t stop communism from spreading if they don’t have the power to stop Russia, Russia could take all the progressive countries’ goods for themselves, he wants to use the money to build up the US Air Force, it would weaken US by giving resources away, and it would send the nation into bankruptcy.

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45

similarities between the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan

Both providing economic aid or sums of money to European countries, the US was acting if it was their duty to be the savior or police force of the world, the ultimate goal of stopping the spread of communism, and by helping European nations, the US is naturally building our national defenses and protecting their national security.

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46

differences between the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan

Truman Doctrine offered military aid in addition to economic aid, while the Marshall Plan is just civilian aid. The Marshall Plan meant to help any European nation, Truman Doctrine (at the beginning) only meant to help Turkey and Greece – such success that they did expand the Doctrine to help any European country at risk from communism.

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47

Baruch Plan

failed agreement that would have allowed the US to send in agents to investigate and report on USSR and their development of a nuclear weapon

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48

Marshall Plan

offered financial assistance to nations in Europe who were struggling after WWII

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49

Warsaw Pact

Poland was a member of this: a communist military alliance

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50

Venona Files

these later revealed that there were a number of Soviet spies who were working within the federal government

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51

Department of Defense

this joined the departments of the Army and Navy together into one department

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52

Operation Vittles

the code name for the Berlin airlift

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53

Iron Curtain

an imaginary line that divided Europe between Communism and Democracy

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54

Henry Wallace

one of FDR’s VPs who was removed from the post due to his political intensity; later disagreed with the creation of the Truman Doctrine

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55

police force

after WWII ended, the US assumed the role of being the world’s ___________ ___________

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56

National Security Council

created by the National Security Act of 1947

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57

containment

the US policy of stopping the spread of communism

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58

Turkey and Greece

these two countries were assisted through the Truman Doctrine

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59

Executive Order 9835

Truman’s Loyal Program that investigated federal employees to determine if they had connections to communism

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60

Truman Doctrine

this promised military and financial aid to nations threatened by communism

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61

atomic bomb

one of the reasons that Stalin distrusted the US; Truman had never shared details about this weapon or that he would be using it

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62

Berlin Blockade

this failed because of the Allies execution of the Berlin Airlift

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63

NATO

West Germany was a member of this; a democratic military alliance that formed as a direct response to the Berlin Blockade

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64

currency

the Allies proposed reform in this ultimately led to the Berlin Blockade

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65

why Truman was hurt in the 1948 election

the Democratic party had split into Democrats and Dixiecrats and had to candidates (Truman and Thurmond) running, so the votes would be split.

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66

The Full Employment Bill of 1946

would ensure employment for ALL Americans, this couldn't pass as is because it sounded too much like communism

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67

Employment Act of 1946:

called for maximum employment (not FULL), private enterprise holds the primary responsibility for economic decisions, created Council of Economic advisors to help make long term policy recommendations

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68

candidates of 1948 election

Truman (Democrat), Dewey (Republican), Wallace (Progressive), Thurmond (States' Rights (Dixiecrats))

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69

significance of Truman's victory

the media was so convinced he was going to lose that they already started printing newspapers with the headline "DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN"

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70

Truman's Fair Deal

He mostly tried to ride the coattails of FDR -- he kept Social Security and minimum wage. essentially much of what he was just an extension of FDR's most well-liked programs

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71

Jackie Robinson

the first African American to play in Major League Baseball.

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72

desegregated the military

Truman first president to go out on a limb and try to support civil rights - this was one action he did to try and further civil rights

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73

GI Bill of Rights

guaranteed veterans health care, lowered interest rates on loans for homes, free college education, and preferential treatment when it came to public sector jobs.

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74

Levittowns

Suburban communities where the houses all looked the same. Thanks to the GI Bill and mass production of these homes, they were more affordable.

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75

white flight

mass movement of middle class whites to the suburbs

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76

negative effect of white flight

only the poor and minorities were left in cities. Cities fall into disrepair because of the tax dollars that are leaving with the middle-class and wealthy going to the suburbs, revenue gone. Basically, due to the loss of tax dollars, cities fell into disrepair.

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77

baby boom

1946-1964: a great increase of births occurred in the US, thanks to the GI bill of rights, advances in health care (vaccines for polio, etc), information more accessible on child care thanks to books by Dr. Benjamin Spock

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78

Postwar Hollywood

  1. dark -- plays on the anxieties and fears of the time (communism). Villains often revealed to be Russian. Femme fatale - beautiful woman, secret spy, will kill you.

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79

Dwight Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson

Candidates in the 1952 election: Republican and Democrat respectively

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80

platform of Eisenhower

First war hero to be elected since Ulysses S. Grant; middle of the road approach; K1C2 (Korea, Corruption, Communism).

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81

Taft–Hartley Act

restricts the activities and power of labor unions; vetoed by Truman

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82

NSC-68

National Security Council Memorandum Number 68 for Truman and it assessed the balance of Soviet and US power in the world. It offered policy recommendations for US handling USSR

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83

factors that altered the global balance of power

two revolutions (Russia and China – created communist nations); world wars led to decline of the Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, German, Italian, and Japanese empires – power vacuum created

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84

isolationism; continuing current policies; war; rapid buildup of political, economic, and military

the NSC-68 suggested that the US consider these four options when dealing with the Soviet Union.

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85

why isolation is not an option

means Soviet domination – no one to check them, plus both nations have atomic bombs

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86

why war is not an option

“MAD” - any direct conflict with USSR leads to destruction – fire nuclear bombs at them, they fire back goes to rapid buildup of military, political, and economic strength

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87

MAD

mutually assured destruction

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88

what WWII taught the US

their economy, when it operates at the level approaching full efficiency, can provide enormous resources for purposes other than civilian consumption while simultaneously providing a high standard of living.

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89

Korea

was a unified peninsula before WWII, but during WWII, the Japanese took control

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90

the odd surrender of Korea

the South was surrendered to the US by Japan, but the North was surrendered to the USSR, helping establish the South as democratic and the North as communist

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91

38th Parallel

the line that split North and South Korea after WWii; meant to be temporary

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92

reunify

North and South Korea wanted to _________, but there was debate over whether they would be democrats or communists

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93

North Korea

In 1949, after the US troops leave South Korea, this nation attacked them in order to reunify by force and make them all be communists

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94

UN

South Korea appeals to this international body for help, who then votes and approves troops to be sent to aid South Korea and kick North Korea out

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95

Security Council

in charge of deciding whether they will send out troops or not; they must vote unanimously. Consists of Britain, France, US, USSR, and China

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96

real China

the US only recognizes Taiwan as the _____________ because they were democratic, unlike mainland China who were communists, meaning Taiwan was on the Security Council

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97

boycotted

the USSR ________________ the Security Council because the US did not acknowledge true China, so the four countries voted unanimously without USSR

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98

Douglas MacArthur

war hero from WWII in charge of UN forces (American soldiers) in Korea

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99

little

UN forces made _______ impact at first because the North Korean troops were pretty good

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100

Pusan

UN troops were surrounded/cornered at this South Korean city

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