Social Studies T2 Review

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Arabs

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102 Terms

1

Arabs

Semitic speaking people from southwestern Asia

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2

Bedouin Arabs

  • nomadic people from northern part of Arabian Peninsula

  • organized into tribes

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3

Sheikh

leader of an Arab tribe

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4

Majlis

Council of elders of a Bedouin tribe that selected the sheikh

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5

Allah

Supreme God that presided over a community of spirits

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6

Ka'aba

Central shrine in the commercial city of Mecca that houses a gigantic black meteorite

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7

Islam

  • "submission to the will of Allah"

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8

Qur'an

  • holy scriptures of Islam which means "recitation"

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9

Umma

The community of all Muslims

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10

5 Pillars of Islam

  • monotheism = belief in Allah

  • Prayer 5x a day facing Mecca

  • Hajj = Pilgrimage to Mecca once in lifetime

  • Fasting during Ramadan (Holy Month)

  • Zakat = giving to the poor

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11

Astrolabe, Armillary Sphere

Used to study the skies and make calculations for their calendars and maps

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12

Shari'a

  • Law code that provides believers with a set of prescriptions to regulate life

  • formed by Ulama and Hadith was used to create it

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13

Jihad

  • used to describe the process of expanding Islam

  • "Holy War" or "Striving in the way of the Lord"

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14

Caliph

Temporal leader of the Islamic community

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15

Imam

A religious leader of the Islamic community

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16

Razzaia

  • to defeat his enemies and expand the authority of Islam throughout the Arabian Peninsula

  • "raids"

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17

Umayyad Dynasty

  • An Islamic Dynasty based on succession rather than election following the first period of caliphates

  • capital in Damascus, 650-750

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18

Abbasid Dynasty

  • dynasty that was formed after the Umayyad's

  • capital in Baghdad, 750-1250

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19

Baghdad

Capital of Abbasid dynasty, present day Iraq

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20

Damascus

Capital of Umayyad Dynasty, present day Syria

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21

Ulama

  • a panel of Muslim scholars who created the Shari'a law

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22

Hadith

A collection of the sayings and deeds of Muhammad

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23

Hijab

a headscarf worn by Muslim women

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24

Burka

Muslim garment women would wear over their entire body

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25

Sunni

  • 90% of Muslims who accepted Abu Bakr as first Caliph

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26

Shi'ite

  • 10% of Muslims who accepted Ali as caliph

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27

1453

  • Year that the Ottomans captured Constantinople and put an end to the Byzantine Empire.

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28

single creator god, monotheistic, in Africa

pantheism

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29

leader of Mali, goes on Hajj, spreads islam throughout Africa

mansa musa

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30

deals with buddhism, not a salvationist creator, do not believe in the divinity of buddhism, way of life/philosophy

Theravada

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31

obtain the essence of Buddha Hood, but you stay on earth to help others

bodhisattva

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32

personal worship

puja

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33

through trade and conquest, after Muhammed's death, equality amongst all believers is a big selling part

islamic expansion

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34

where islamic expansion was stopped in Europe by Charles Martel

battle of tours

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35

founder of Islam, angel Gabriel comes and talks to him with the revelations that become the Quar'an

Muhammed

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36

Muhammed's flight from Mecca to Medina, first day of Islamic calendar

Hegira

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37

caliph

sunni and shia split over

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38

Abu Bakr

who do the sunni support

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39

Ali

who do the Shia support

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40

sacred scripture, revelations

Quaran

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41

Arab nomads on camels

Bedouin's

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42

Arab Muslims-Non Arab Muslims-Non Muslims

social rankings in Islamic Empire

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43

Practice of keeping women in seclusion

Purdah

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44

combination of hinduism and islam, founded by Nanak

sikh

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45

Structure of African society based on family ancestors

Lineage group

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46

Describe the Sui dynasty

Wendi, Yangdi and Yangjian were rulers, Yanjian was the founder, created legal reforms woodblock printing, reunified china, used buddhism and daoism

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47

Describe the Tang Dynasty

Zuanzong, Goosing and Tailing were the leaders, tailing is the founder and leads them into the golden age, medicine and scientific advancements, created gunpowder and stoves, trade, expanded military, bureaucratic policies, confucianism

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48

Describe the Song Dynasty

Zhou Le and Wuzhao were the emperors, controlled vital areas of the Great Wall, Created a test for military leaders, confucianism

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49

what were the Chinese naval expeditions

Voyages of Zheng He

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50

what was foot binding

Tight wrapping of foot to make feet smaller which was a sign of wealth and status

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51

Who was Genghis Khan?

Mongol leader that created the largest empire in the world

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52

Who was Kublai Khan?

Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Yuan Dynasty

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53

What is Confucianism?

A set of beliefs that improve your way of life that improves society and the government

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54

What is Neo-Confucianism?

blending Confucianism and Buddhism

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55

What were Khanates?

each empire was split into 4 parts and each was ruled by a khanates

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56

What is Manichaeism?

a religious tradition born in third-century Persia that combined elements of Zoroastrian, Christian and Buddhist practices

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57

what is a school of mind

Wang Yangming idea that the mind and universe were a single unit.

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58

what is supreme ultimate

A transcendent (Other) world in which humans aspire to live in, yin and yang

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59

What is the shogunate system?

hereditary military dictatorship passed down through generations

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60

what is a samurai

Japanese warrior, used as personal security

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61

What is Shinto?

The traditional religion of Japan, way of god, everything has a soul

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62

describe the ming dynasty

extended rule to India, Persian Gulf and East coast of Africa, built up the Great Wall, trade, high economy

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63

Consuls

chief executives elected to run the government in ancient Rome, two of them

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64

Praetors

government officials who interpret the law and serve as judges

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65

Senate

A group of 300 men elected to govern Rome in the Roman Republic.

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66

Centuriate Assembly

the chief popular assembly of the Roman Republic. It passed laws and elected the chief magistrates.

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67

Tribunes of the Plebeians

Spoke for the plebeians and could veto actions of the Senate. The council of Plebs made laws for all plebeians.

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68

Carthage

City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by the expanding Roman Republic in the third century B.C.E.

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69

Punic Wars

A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.

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70

Hannibal

Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.

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71

Battle of Zama

the battle in 202 BC in which Scipio decisively defeated Hannibal at the end of the second Punic War

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72

Roman Army

legions-basic unit of 4500 to 6000 soldiers. loyal, well-trained, disciplined, highly organized

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73

Etruscans

A people who inhabited early italy

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74

Livy

Roman historian whose history of Rome filled 142 volumes (of which only 35 survive) including the earliest history of the war with Hannibal (59 BC to AD 17)

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75

Roman Confederation

A system of rule where Romans gave full citizenship to some conquered peoples.

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76

how was Rome's geography

middle of world, in Mediterranean sea, natural barriers in north

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77

What is natural law?

universal set of laws, 12 tables, law of nations

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78

What were the Punic Wars?

Series of wars between Rome and Carthage

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79

who was Julius Caesar

Dictator of Rome

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80

what did Julius Caesar do for Rome

enlarged the Senate to 900 people, decreased Rome's debt, took land from the rich and gave it to the poor, increased soldier's pay, assassinated

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81

What is a latifundia?

large farming estates ran by slaves

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82

who are Romulus and Remus

twin sons of the god Mars and a Latin princess who are said to be the founders of Rome, fourth each other and Romulus won

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83

what is the republic made up of

senate, 2 consuls, laws,

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84

wat is a triumvirate

three people hold power

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85

who are the patricians

wealthy families descended from earliest romans. The elders met in a council called the senate.

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86

what were plebeians

common people

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87

what is Pax Romana

the peace that existed between nationalities within the Roman Empire, 27 BC to 180 CE

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88

who was Augustus

First emperor of Rome, Octavian, emperor during Pax Romana

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89

who were Antonius and Gracchi

had the idea to take land from the rich and give it to the poor, they were killed for this

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90

Who was Constantine?

Roman emperor; made christianity legal; moved capital to Byzantium (later called Constantinople), split empire in two

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91

who was Diocletian

A strong-willed army leader who became the new emperor. He split the empire and fixed prices on goods to maintain Rome for longer.

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92

Who was Cincinnatus?

A dictator who served for 16 days, was a farmer and became leader for war

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93

what was the decline of Rome

invaded, inflation, plague, military losses

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94

similarities between Han dynasty and Rome

both imperialistic, both defended their land by fighting

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95

what were the contributions of Rome

enate, republic, roads, architecture, christianity

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96

What were the Twelve Tables?

Rome's first written laws, all could see, similar to Hammurabi's code

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97

What was the Byzantine Empire?

The continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire

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98

who was Justinian

Justinian was one of the greatest Byzantine emperors whose rule began in 527, created Justinian's code

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99

What did Justinian build?

Hagia Sophia, hippodrome

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100

Who was Theodora?

Justinian's wife, spoke out, passed divorce laws, advocates for women

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